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copyright), socioeconomic issues with biotechnology companies. These problems relating cultural knowledge and intellectual property rights are explored in the next section. 1 General features of … About Us. HSC Biology Course Overview. Welcome back to Week 10 of your HSC Biology Syllabus Notes! Aboriginal Protocol: Smokebush is a plant used by Aboriginal people for their healing properties in increasing the rate of healing for cuts on their skin and other skin conditions. We mentioned earlier that plasma cells are produced via the activation of B cells or Memory B cells and the produced antibodies will have antigen binding sites that matches the antigen that activated the B cells and Memory B. Part (a) 3 marks. Eating utensils should be cleaned with detergent and hot water before allowed to be used by another individual to ensure that the tools are free from pathogens. P.S: Cultural knowledge are those pertaining to the cultural practices of Aboriginal people including the knowledge related to or passed via the Aboriginal People heritage. As the chemical structure of the antigen has been largely altered due to the action of enzymes in lysosome, the decomposed matter of antigen is not toxic or harmful to the host’s cells. Lastly, we have antibodies which we have already discussed in the above ‘B lymphocytes’ section. The effectiveness of the anti-viral drug in treating Influenza was been mixed. This therefore stop the pathogen’s (or the hyphae) invasion to obtain nutrients from the plant’s cells that are necessary for fungi growth & survival. For an organism to obtain natural actively acquired immunity, it involves the organism naturally AND unintentionally being exposed to pathogens such as in daily life. Lignin produced also allows the modification of cell wall structure by blocking the plasmodesmata (the channel allowing molecules to through the cell wall) is blocked, thus hindering the flow of pathogen from one cell to another. Upon activation, the helper T cell will perform the activities that we have mentioned previously. The cleanliness in food, water and personal hygiene practices are important to prevent the spread of, i.e. Recycling or proper disposal of discarded containers and tyres. Well, the pathogen contained in the vaccines will be the one causing the disease in which the individual want to develop immunity to. This will temporary shield your deeper tissues from being exposed to microbes in the environment. Wile, Exploring Creation with Biology 2nd edition Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free. The inflammation response is initiated by infected cells releasing chemicals known as histamines and prostaglandins. These vaccines can be provided to the individual orally or via injection. When the infected cell(s) is not suppressed from transmitting disease, the second line of defence have the mechanism involving neighbouring cells dying to form a wall of dead cells surrounding infected cell(s), forming a capsule structure known as granuloma. We have explored how Influenza can spread via direct and indirect contact last week. The granuloma has a three-layer structure. When cells are infected by a virus, they are able to secrete proteins called interferons. HSC biology revision is vital to preparing for and hitting band 6 in your module exams. Phagocytosis can then be performed on the antigen-antibody complex whereby a phagocyte can enclose or engulf the complex. NOTE: In some scenarios, the antigen may avoid being engulfed and phagocytosis is unsuccessful. Here, beta-glucan is a type of microbe-associated molecule pattern. The Biology examination specifications can be found in the Assessment and Reporting in Biology Stage 6 document. Therefore, the appropriate treatment of sewerage water to prevent pollution of waterways as well as the treatment of water prior to supplying to households, shops, etc are necessary to prevent the spread of pathogens and disease. NOTE: This section will be covering next week’s notes which is about the adaptive immune response (third line of defence). The centre should also have pavements, clean water supply, shelters, health services, education centres, food storage and market place. NOTE: Similar to the first line of defence, the second line of defence is also non-specific to to the invading pathogen. This will also be the future of Oseltamivir and Zanamivir as virus mutate at a moderate to high rate, resulting the virus to develop resistance to existing antiviral drugs. These two methods can prevent individuals come being infected with pathogen and contracting the disease. There are three main types of environmental management which the World Health Organisation outlined to control Dungue Fever: “Environmental modification – Long-lasting physical transformations to reduce vector larval habitats. There are three alleles of the B gene: B, B+, and Bo. Hence, the different types of T cells produced are specific to the same antigen which the original Helper T cell was activated by. Another note is that all aircrafts entering Australia are disinfected to eliminate vectors such as mosquitoes. Get our latest COVID-19 advice ... Module C: The Craft of Writing The physical barriers constituting to the first line of defence in animals (such as humans) include: The chemical barriers that makes up the first line of defence are: Body secretions – urine, lysozymes, saliva. with handwash and water) as there can be harmful microbes on your hands which you can transfer to your food and into your system when contaminated food is consumed. Here, we will be dealing with the environmental conditions that affects those regions specifically. The activated helper T cells will also secrete cytokine molecules that activates B lymphocytes, causing them to divide and differentiate into plasma cells and memory B cells. Before then, it was believed that cholera is due to contact with air of bad smell. An antigen-antibody complex is formed when the antibody produced by the plasma cell binds to a matching antigen. Different cultures would have different traditional methods in treating diseases passed down through generations. Exam-style questions and solutions; ... HSC – Biology - Module 7 - Infectious Disease quantity. Public Health Campaigns are advertised and/or provided to the public to convey a health message and generate a desire from the target audience. when individual gets exposed to the antigen for the first time). Public Health Campaigns – including the importance of personal hygiene. chitinase, glucanase and protease as mentioned earlier) to stop the reproduction & growth of pathogens. Year 12 Chemistry; Year 12 Physics; Module 7 | Infectious disease ... 79 Practice questions. Gingivitis is the accumulation of bacteria in the mouth which is very brushing teeth and mouthwash are products used to maintain personal hygiene. This allows and encourages easy disposal of waste conveniently. Comparatively, the recovery time for patients supplied with and not supplied with Zanamivir was from 6.6 days to 6 days. The Commonwealth Copyright Act also contains a ‘loophole’ in the case of intellectual property. Contemporary application: In fact, one of smokebush’s contemporary application is to treat AIDS in 1995 and onwards. What is the daily value of total fat grams a person should consume per day? Production & secretion of antimicrobial molecules such as nitric oxide (NO) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). New posts Search forums. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples consumed the Davidson plum as way to boost their body’s nutrient level which reduced their chance of having scurvy disease. specialised white blood cells) that is responsible for phagocytosis. Plants have both innate and induced disease resistance mechanisms. NOTE: You should always be specific in your response when talking about T cells. Some of these are: Exotic live plant material from airplane passengers, ship cargo, etc. Prevalence means the total amount of individuals affected by the particular disease in a given population and time. HSC Biology – Module 5: Heredity – Reproduction Study Notes Page 3 of 6 o Seed dispersal - Following successful pollination and fertilisation of the flower, the seed develops - It is an advantage for a plant to spread or disperse its seeds over a wide NOTE: There are more memory T cells than Helper T cells which is why the secondary exposure to the same pathogen (with same antigen) is quicker than when the individually exposed to the pathogen for the first time. A point that we talked about in ‘Personal Hygiene’ relates to the important of the cleanliness of food. Zanamivir decreased the incidence of bronchitis while Oseltamivir did not. 20 HSC Biology Module 6: Genetic Change Practice Questions by Alex Gao The topic of Genetic Change is new to the HSC Biology syllabus and may feel like uncharted territory to some students, but that’s why it’s important you consolidate your knowledge with some practice questions! This therefore prevents infection from the pathogen. Year 12 Biology Module 5. Upon successful binding, antibody is able to immobilise the antigen or block their receptors that are used in host cell entry. Urine that produced from the kidney passes through the walls of the ureter and bladder. In the case of animals, we will be using humans as an example and be looking into the three lines of defence that makes up our immune system. describe a variety of infectious diseases caused by pathogens, including microorganisms, macroorganisms and non-cellular pathogens, and collect primary and secondary-sourced data and information relating to disease transmission, including: (ACSBL097, ACSBL098, ACSBL116, ACSBL117) Incidence is the number of new individuals affected by the disease in the same population in a given point in time. It is currently not certain as to why this is the case. They are also incorporated in contemporary natural medicines used to help boost vitamin C levels. For example, the Aboriginal People of Australia have acquired extension knowledge in using native Australian flora to treat diseases. Slip, Slop, Slap, Seek, Slide) & recommended products, How to individuals can detect early signs of skin cancer. Grade: HSC Subject: Physics Resource type: HSC Questions Written by: N/A Year uploaded: 2019 Page length: 140 The process of submitting a patent claim is expensive and may not be affordable for individuals such as a single Aboriginal person. This rate may differ when measured across different time periods as even distribution is assumed, thus, the formula assumes constant rate. NOTE: An antigen is a protein molecule present on the pathogen (or they can be proteins secreted by the pathogen). Biosecurity Risk Analysis: This is a form of risk assessment that is performed by DAWR in light of new information of potential risk regarding existing import material. Out of these factors, shelter would probably be the most important as it offers the affected people protection from changing climatic conditions such as heavy rain, thunderstorms, etc. NOTE: The first line of defence is non-specific to the invading pathogen. This allows a secondary immune response to be initiated when the individual is exposed to the same pathogen. However, these documentations are not reflective of the full collection of flora belonging to the Aboriginal People and, thus, many biotechnological companies are granted rights to indigenous plants. Antigen-antigen complex provides a site for complement proteins to bind to which is able to attract phagocytes to bind to them and destroy the antigen. Lastly, the increase in cytotoxic T cells being produced (from Helper T cell activation) is also caused by cytokines. In natural passively acquired immunity, it involves the transfer of antibodies from mother to baby such as diffusion through the placenta. The chemistry behind is that the yellow ochre is basic and thus can react and neutralise with any excess hydrochloric acid in the stomach. at  a maximum of several months. For plants, we will be focusing on virus and fungi pathogens. When the host organism is exposed to the same antigen again (perhaps could to due to exposure to the same pathogen), these memory T cells will have the same surface receptor protein that activated the Helper T cells the first time that produced the memory T cells. These different types of T cells that are produced all have the SAME specific receptor protein that is present in the original Helper T cell which they are derived from. Animal Quarantine: Animals that cross the Australian border are required to be quarantined for forty days to ensure that the animal is not carrying pest or contracted with a disease prior to release. Respectively, they are used to eliminate insects (vectors), fungi disease and weeds. Experimental results obtained from trials performed by the American National Cancer Institute revealed that the smokebush comprise of a molecule called conocurovone that is capable of killing the HIV virus that can be used to cure AIDS. Let’s now have a look at the main vectors that are responsible for epidemics. This disease is a metabolic disorder leading to damage dealt to nerve cells in body. Guide to answering sample HSC style questions across cross modules and/or focusing on data analysis for students to complete. Since the surface of the skin is waterproof, it is able to be maintained at a dry state which hinders the growth of pathogens. One example of a public health campaign are the government regulations established to: Convey the appropriate requirements of potable (drinkable) water exiting the water treatment plant that is supplied to households and factories. Isolation – In hospitals – Tuberculosis patients. macrophage). Appropriate burial sites for dead bodies should be available. The strict and strong quarantine practices is also a reason why Australia’s crops are in high demand as they are seen as free from harmful pests & diseases. Phagocytes assist the 3rd line of defence as the phagocyte that engulfed the antigen will move & display some of the antigen on its surface. :). NOTE: Remember Robert Koch? The final layer is made up of fibre cells to consolidate and envelope the structure. However, due to the inevitable development of resistance by the pesticides, pesticides’ negative impact on human health and the environment, alternative solutions are currently being researched. – 2 – The first HSC examination for the new Biology Stage 6 syllabus will be held in 2019. This binding process is not immediately and so the 2nd line of defence is good at minimising the quantity and damage caused by invading pathogen before the adaptive immune response hopefully ‘saves the day’. For instance, someone can take an airplane from Queensland to New South Wales. This would results in apoptosis. 78 3. 57 Hours of video. Complement proteins are produced by liver cells and makes up the complement system comprised of a collection of 20 types proteins that circulate the blood. The plant’s innate disease resistance responses involves the: Cell wall & cuticle preventing water loss and act as a physical barrier to prevent pathogens enter leaf. The food containers should also be sealed with lids to prevent contamination or being in contact with vectors. You should also wash your hair and shower regularly to prevent the accumulation of pathogens. Education: As an example, the HSC Biology Syllabus for NSW students incorporates quarantine strategies as a method of controlling pests & diseases. 1 Module 7: Infectious Disease. The specific-induced immunity response involves resistance proteins recognising the antigen which triggers responses via a signalling pathway. Aboriginal Protocol: When exposed to water, the soap’s tree leaves is able to lather or produce a soap solution that have antibacterial properties and thus act as an antiseptic. Lit! The new HSC Biology Module 7: Infectious Disease is brimming with new content! Also any reproduction will occur inside the macrophage will be destroyed by lysosomes’ enzymes upon combination. suburb/s) with high population density will have higher incidence of Influenza A than sections of the same local area (e.g. Module 8. Using mosquito nets while sleeping during daytime.“. Now, we did mention in the previous section when we examined T Lymphocytes where we said that activated Helper T cells will secrete cytokine molecules that will stimulate or activate B lymphocytes that has surface antibody that is matching the antigen that caused the Helper T cell to be activated. Actively acquired immunity exists in two categories, these being Natural or Induced. There are many quarantine strategies that has been put into place, including: All humans crossing the Australian border are checked if they are carrying pests or contracted with diseases. T cells are also stored in lymphatic tissues in the spleen, thymus, tonsils and liver. With over Australia’s agriculture industry worth over $60 billion annually, it is critical to ensure that the country should have strict and strong control of pests and diseases that is harmful to the nation’s crops. Year 12 HSC Biology Practice Questions: Module 5: Heredity Module 6: Genetic Change Module 7: Infectious Disease Module 8: Non-Infectious Disease and Disorders HSC Biology Module 1: Cells as the Basis of Life Question 1. There should be one toilet cubicle or facilitate per every 20 individual and they should be separated according to gender. Contents. As a result, the drugs would be ineffective in lowering the duration of the disease (control) and reduce the symptoms of disease. Immunity essentially means a state in which an individual is resistant to being infected by a pathogen and develop the corresponding disease. Both drugs increased puking, nausea and headache symptoms in patients. Biotechnology companies that is performing research on creating plant-derived medicines may use books that contains records of Aboriginal People’s method of using various traditional techniques and knowledge on using various flora as medicine to treat diseases that are passed down over many generations. To help you prepare and revise for Module 7, we’ve curated a selection of sample HSC style questions to consolidate your knowledge. This means that diseases, such as Influenza, can spread from one country to another at a massive scale. On a Nutrition Facts label, how many calories does each gram of fat provide? Saliva in our mouth are contains enzymes called lysozymes that is capable of decomposing their protective cell wall of bacteria which led to their eventual decomposition. However, isolation of an extract of the pathogen and injecting into individuals not yield the results which vaccines would hoped to yield. So, we will not delve into that. Another example is that individuals that live in more isolated regions would mean that they will come in contact with less infected individuals compared to those living in the city. Now, you may ask what Memory B cells does? pathogen). This served as a way for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People to remove any heartburns or stomach upsets. After maturation, the B cells will move form the bone marrow to lymph nodes and lymphatic tissues via blood. PAST HSC QUESTIONS- MOD 7. They are manufactured in the bone marrow and also mature there. About Us. When memory B cells are activated by the same antigen (e.g. Therefore, the drugs would be ineffective in controlling the disease. Phagocytosis is useful because when the antigen is engulfed by the phagocyte (e.g. Contents. The lymph nodes in the lymphatic system has the ability to filter and trap antigens. The pathogen must trigger the immune response (3rd line of defence), resulting in the production of memory B and T cells. Without further ado, let’s start munching on the delicious knowledge! Food stored in refrigerators should be covered beforehand to prevent being contaminated with pathogens. The mucous membranes are on the surface of the respiratory, digestive, reproductive and urinary tracts. HSC – Business … PAST HSC QUESTIONS- MOD 7. Antibiotics affect the metabolic activities of bacteria which does not exist in viruses. antiseptic and bandaid). Also, more antibodies, specific to the pathogen, are produced in the secondary immune response than in the primary immune response. Alternatively, it is likely that sections of a local area (e.g. Antibiotics are only used to treat bacterial infection whereas antiviral drugs are used to treat viral infection (infections caused by viruses). This is very effective as studies have shown such use of polystyrene reduced the mosquito population by over 95% after using such polymer (polystyrene). For instance, if we are dealing with Alzheimers, it probably not be appropriate to count the children population as they are NOT at risk of having the disease. New posts New resources New profile posts Latest activity. This is because the introduction of antibodies do not result in the production of memory T or B cells.

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