Martha Nussbaum and Amartya Sen Abstract. Structure and Development of Nussbaum’s Capability Theory. Much of conventional welfare economics today is grounded in a utilitarian approach according to the classical Benthamite form of utilitarianism, in which the most desirable action is the one that best increases peoples' psychological happiness or satisfaction.  Furthermore, GNP and GDP only account for monetary exchanges, and place no value on some important intangibles such as leisure time.  In summary, the agency aspect is important in assessing what a person can do in line with his or her conception of the good.. The capability approach, on the other hand, doesn't fall victim to these same criticisms because it acknowledges inequalities by focusing on equalizing people's capabilities, not happiness, it stresses the intrinsic importance of rights and freedoms when evaluating well-being, and it avoids overlooking deprivation by focusing on capabilities and opportunities, not state of mind. Possibilities of application are discussed in the context of important practical problems, such as correcting gender-based inequalities, determining medical priorities, and promoting living standards. Capabilities are the alternative combinations of functionings that are feasible for a person to achieve.  On the other hand, Sen refuses to supply a specific list of capabilities. 'This is a very helpful discussion of the main issues connected with the capability approach to social justice associated with Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. , The Gender-related Development Index is defined as a "distribution-sensitive measure that accounts for the human development impact of existing gender gaps in the three components of the HDI" (p. In sum, the conclusion of Capabilities Approach is that people do not just value monetary income, and that development is linked to various indicators of life satisfaction and hence are important in measuring well-being. More recently, the approach has been criticized for being grounded in the liberal notion of freedom: This is a fundamentally reductive view of the human condition.  In support of this index, Sakiko Fukuda-Parr—a development economist and past Director of The Human Development Report Office—differentiates between income poverty and human poverty. Currently the HDI continues to be used in the Human Development Report in addition to many other measures (based on theoretical perspectives of Capabilities) that have been developed and used by the United Nations. The important part of this definition is the "freedom to achieve", because if freedom had only instrumental value (valuable as a means to achieve an end) and no intrinsic value (valuable in and of itself) to a person's well-being, then the value of the capability set as a whole would simply be defined by the value of a person's actual combination of functionings. , As noted above, to a great extent, Nussbaum's Central Human Capabilities address issues of equality, political freedom, creativity and the right to the self, as do the various indices that are based on capabilities. The purpose was to create an indicator of human development, especially one that would provide a general assessment and critique of global human development to shed light on persistent inequality, poverty and other capability deprivations despite high levels of GDP growth.. Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you've read. 11).  She points out that the notion of (combined) capability "combines internal preparedness with external opportunity in a complicated way, so that measurement is likely to be no easy task.". Capability approach pioneered by Amartya Sen has been a new milestone for analyzing poverty through gender perspective. Therefore, agency is crucial in assessing one's capabilities and any economic, social, or political barriers to one's achieving substantive freedoms. He is disinclined to in any way devalue the domain of reasoning in the public sphere. In sum, having a lifestyle is not the same as choosing it; well-being depends on how that lifestyle came to be. Measures such as the HDI, GDI, GEM, GII, IHDI and the like are crucial in targeting issues of well-being and indicators of quality of life. In significant respects, the approach is consistent with the handling of choice within conventional microeconomics consumer theory, although its conceptual foundations enable it to acknowledge the existence of claims, like rights, which normatively dominate utility-based claims (see Sen 1979). It tries to reconcile the rationality and morality of individuals. Nussbaum lays out the capabilities approach to human development, which she has developed jointly with Amartya Sen, in this monograph. Sen’s version of capa bility approach clarifies that . Well-being will also be increased by institutions that enable citizens to feel that they control their own lives, and that investment of their time and resources will be rewarded. Marilyn Waring, a political economist and activist for women's rights, elaborates on the example of a mother engaged in child care, domestic care and producing few goods for the informal market, all of which are usually done simultaneously.  In this way, the GDI accounts for shortcomings in the HDI in terms of gender, because it re-evaluates a country's score in the three areas of the HDI based on perceived gender gaps, and penalizes the score of the country if, indeed, large gender disparities in those areas exist. Oxford England: Clarendon Press. Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read The Quality of Life. 99). The association now has about 1,000 members from all over the world. For example, those with p… In other words, functionings are the subjects of the capabilities referred to in the approach: what we are capable, want to be capable, or should be capable to be and/or do. Arguably, the main difficulty in a resource- or income-based approach to well-being lies in personal heterogeneities, namely the diversity of human beings. Essentially, functionings are the states and activities constitutive of a person's being. However, the commonly used indicators of economic success such as per capita income are at best crude measures of the quality of life. Martha Craven Nussbaum, Amartya Sen. Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1996 - Business & Economics - 588 pages.  However, measuring resources is fundamentally different from measuring functionings, such as the case in which people don't have the capability to use their resources in the means they see fit. 152 –157. One of the most famous frameworks for approaching these questions, the capabilities approach, was developed primarily by philosopher Martha Nussbaum and philosopher-economist Amartya Sen. A major project in this area has been the 'capabilities measurement project' in which Anand has led teams of philosophers, economists and social scientists to generate that gives a full and direct implement of the approach drawing particular on the key relations and concepts developed in Sen (1985) but also on work to do with the content of the approach. In this collection of essays, some leading economists and philosophers rise to that challenge and provide a wide-ranging investigation. It is seen as an alternative to existing preference-based measures of health-related quality of life (for example the EQ-5D) that focus on functioning, and can be applied within the framework of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The Human Development Index takes into consideration a number of development and well-being factors that are not taken into account in the calculation of GDP and GNP. , For the purposes of the capability approach, agency primarily refers to a person's role as a member of society, with the ability to participate in economic, social, and political actions. , The capability approach is being developed and increasingly applied in health economics, for use in cost-effectiveness analysis. Therefore, a person's chosen combination of functionings, what they are and do, is part of their overall capability set — the functionings they were able to do. Monetary vs. non-monetary measures of well-being, Human Development and Capability Association, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, International Association for Feminist Economics, Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, Important publications in development economics, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, "The development of capability indicators", "Capability and functionings: definition & justification", "Creating Capacities for Human Flourishing: An Alternative Approach to Human Development", Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD, Who's Counting? AMARTYA SEN Amartya Sen is Lamont University Professor at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA Abstract The two concepts — human rights and capabilities — go well with each other, so long as we do not try to subsume either concept entirely within the territory of … Additionally, other contingent circumstances which affect what an individual can make of a given set of resources include environmental diversities (in geographic sense), variations in social climate, differences in relational perspectives, and distribution within the family..  Nussbaum's capabilities approach is centered around the notion of individual human dignity. One of the most influential aspects of the capability approach, developed in large part by economist Amartya Sen and also extensively by philosopher Martha Nussbaum, is … ISBN 9780195074857.  The "utility" of a person stands for some measure of his or her pleasure or happiness. This end is often lost in the immediate concern with the accumulation of commodities and financial wealth that are only a means to expansion of capabilities. ” —Amartya Sen, winner of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Economics “ A marvelous achievement: beautifully written and accessible. She claims that a political order can only be considered as being decent if this order secures at least a threshold level of these 10 capabilities to all inhabitants. This is an open access title available under the terms of a … Yet, functionings can also be conceptualized in a way that signifies an individual's capabilities. Consequently, the capability set outlined by this approach is not merely concerned with achievements; rather, freedom of choice, in and of itself, is of direct importance to a person's quality of life. Moreover, Amartya Sen contends that functionings are crucial to an adequate understanding of the capability approach; capability is conceptualized as a reflection of the freedom to achieve valuable functionings.. Amartya Kumar Sen (sinh ngày 3 tháng 11 năm 1933) là nhà kinh tế học, triết gia Ấn Độ. Anand, et al. Among these indices are the Gender-related Development Index (GDI), the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), introduced in 1995, and the more recent Gender Inequality Index (GII) and the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI), both adopted in 2010. Mots-clés: Approche des capabilités, empowerment, Amartya Sen, Martha Nussbaum, questions fondamentales JEL: O10 1 This paper has been improved by David Crocker, Jay Drydyk, Eric Palmer, and an anonymous reviewer. Whether you've loved the book or not, if you give your honest and detailed thoughts then people will find new books that are right for them. Although we can trace someaspects of the capability approach back to, among others, Aristotle,Adam Smith, and Karl Marx (see Nussbaum 1988, 1992; Sen 1993, 1999:14, 24; Walsh 2000), it is economist-philosopher Amartya Sen whopioneered the approach and philosopher Martha Nussbaum and a growingnumber of other scholars across the hu… Concern for agency stresses that participation, public debate, democratic practice, and empowerment, should be fostered alongside well-being. The overall result is a major contribution to the understanding and use of the idea of the quality of life. Symposium on Amartya Sen's philosophy: 5 Adaptive preferences and women's options - Volume 17 Issue 1 - Martha C. Nussbaum Nussbaum, Martha; Oksenberg Rorty, Amelie (1992). Search . As was recognized in the 1990 Human Development Report, the basic objective of development is to create an enabling environment for people to live long, healthy, and creative lives. La idea de calidad de vida es un concepto cardinal en la evaluación del nivel económico y social de un país, así como de sus políticas públicas y de su legislación social. 0 Reviews.  (See the article on Feminist economics, section "Well-being"). For example, when a person chooses to engage in fasting, they are exercising their ability to pursue a goal they value, though such a choice may not positively affect physical well-being. 9). ; conversely, people can establish such an environment by being agents. Also, output-based measures ignore unpaid work, which includes child rearing and the societal advantages that result from a mother's work. Poverty is understood as capability-deprivation. Kuznets provides the example of the process by which farmers devote time and energy to bringing virgin land into cultivation. Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum have made major contributions in exploring poverty . That said, applications to development are discussed in Sen (1999), Nussbaum (2000), and Clark (2002, 2005), and are now numerous to the point where the capabilities approach is widely accepted as a paradigm in development.  Along with concerns raised about Nussbaum's list, Alkire and Black also argue that Nussbaum's methodology "runs counter to an essential thrust of the capabilities approach which has been the attempt to redirect development theory away from a reductive focus on a minimally decent life towards a more holistic account of human well-being for all people.". Download Citation. This volume gathers the thoughts of reputed academics in economics, social policy, philosophy, and the social sciences as they scrutinize contentions regarding quality of life and the way in which it is, it can be, and ought to be measured. related issues using capabilit y approach. 78 No. Amazon Price New from Used from Kindle Edition "Please retry" CDN$ 97.95 — — Hardcover "Please retry" CDN$ 111.15 — … Sen, Amartya (1970) The impossibility of a Paretian liberal, Journal of Political Economy Vol. If possible, download the file in its original format. There is a strong need for a systematic exploration of the content, reach, and relevance of the concept of the quality of life, and ways of making it concrete and usable. They use these applications to argue that the capability framework is a particularly good fit for understanding quality of life across the life course and that it provides a relatively universal grammar for understanding the elements of human well-being. The capability approach developed by Martha Nussbaum and Amartya Sen has received substantial attention in recent years, in philosophical exchanges as well as in more applied discussions on policy-making, in particular in developing countries, but lately also in Western countries, including Europe and the EU. The Human Development Index is calculated using the indicators of life expectancy, adult literacy, school enrollment, and logarithmic transformations of per-capita income. It may take up to 1-5 minutes before you receive it. BibTex; Tagged; XML; Notes: Italian translation, Feltrinelli, 1997.  In this example, the functioning is starving but the capability to obtain an adequate amount of food is the key element in evaluating well-being between individuals in the two states.  The resulting measure was entitled the Human Development Index, created by Mahbub ul Haq in collaboration with Sen and others. The book extends the capabilities approach in a critical form. Divorced from Alan Nussbaum in 1987, Nussbaum embarked on a romantic liaison with Amartya Sen, the Indian-born Harvard scholar who won the 1998 Nobel Prize in … Love's knowledge: essays on philosophy and literature. Sen , Amartya ( 1999 ) Development as Freedom , New York : Random House . This paper contributes to the The measurement of capabilities was, in the early days, thought to be a particular barrier to the implementation and use of the approach.  Consequently, an understanding of what constitutes functionings is inherently tied together with an understanding of capabilities, as defined by this approach. Both propositions cannot hold. Read full review The file will be sent to your email address. Essays on Aristotle's De anima.  Kuznets has often made this point, in his words, "distinctions must be kept in mind between quantity and quality of growth, between costs and returns and between the short and long run. The core focus of the capability approach is on what individuals are able to do (i.e., capable of). Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom (Oxford University Press, 1999) Martha C. Nussbaum, Women and Human Development (Cambridge University Press, 2000) Martha C. Nussbaum, Beyond the Social Contract: Capabilities and Global Justice (2002?) In 1990, the UN Human Development report published the first such exercise which focused on health, education and income which were equally weighted to generate the Human Development Index. Distributional indifference refers to a utilitarian indifference between different the distributions of utility, so long as the sum total is the same (note that the utilitarian is indifferent to the distribution of happiness, not income or wealth - the utilitarian approach would generally prefer, all else being equal, more materially equal societies assuming diminishing marginal utility). In particular, feminist economics and environmental economics offer a number of critiques. Critics in these fields typically discuss gender inequalities, insufficient representation of environmental costs of productions and general issues of misusing an output-based measure for unintended purposes. , Nussbaum further distinguishes between internal capabilities that are personal abilities, and combined capabilities that are "defined as internal capabilities together with the social/political/economic conditions in which functioning can actually be chosen".  The empowerment of women is measured by evaluating women's employment in high-ranking economic positions, seats in parliament, and share of household income. The utility calculus can essentially be unfair to those who have come to terms with their deprivation as a means for survival, adjusting their desires and expectations. Examples of functionings can vary from elementary things, such as being healthy, having a good job, and being safe, to more complex states, such as being happy, having self-respect, and being calm. The Quality of life.  This index also captures some of Nussbaum's 10 Central Capabilities (Senses, Imagination and Thought; Affiliation; and Control Over Ones Environment).  Kuznets terms this as a problem of "obtaining an unduplicated total of all output", (p. 15) this suggests that people are only seen as consumers and not as potential producers, hence any products purchased by an individual are not seen as "being consumed in the productive process of turning out other goods" (p. 15), These accounting measures also fail to capture all forms of work and only focus on "engagement in work 'for pay or profit'", (p. 133) leaving out contributions to a society and economy, like volunteer work and subsistence farming. Furthermore, there are things people value other than increased resources. , Different amounts of income are needed for different individuals to enjoy similar capabilities, such as an individual with severe disabilities whose treatment to ensure the fulfillment of basic capabilities may require dramatically more income compared to an able-bodied person. The "anti-bads" or the defensive expenditures to fight "bads" are not counted as a deduction in accounting systems (p. Human poverty can be interpreted as deprivations to lead a long healthy and creative life with a decent standard of living. You can write a book review and share your experiences. The capability approach (also referred to as the capabilities approach) is an economic theory conceived in the 1980s as an alternative approach to welfare economics. Goals for more growth should specify more growth of what and for what" (p. Converted file can differ from the original.  Such a definition would not acknowledge the entirety of what a person is capable of doing and their resulting current state due to the nature of the options available to them. In this approach, Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum bring together a range of ideas that were previously excluded from (or inadequately formulated in) traditional approaches to the economics of welfare.  Given Nussbaum's contention that the goal of the capabilities approach is to produce capabilities for each and every person, the capabilities below belong to individual persons, rather than to groups. Subsequently, Anand and colleagues have developed datasets for the US, UK and Italy in which all the elements of Sen's framework are reflected in data which permits all three key equations, for functionings, experience and capabilities, to be estimated. That is, in order to be agents of their lives, people need the freedom to be educated, speak in public without fear, express themselves, associate, etc. The capability approach, however, seeks to consider all such circumstances when evaluating people's actual capabilities. One of , This measure was created to rival the more traditional metrics of GDP and GNP, which had previously been used to measure level of development in a given country, but which did not contain provisions for terms of distribution. Formulations of capability have two parts: functionings and opportunity freedom — the substantive freedom to pursue different functioning combinations. , Nussbaum highlights some of the problematic assumptions and conclusions of output-based approaches to development. The earliest work in this project developed a set of around 50 capability indicators which were used to develop a picture of quality of life and deprivation in the UK. 243). The following are a few of the major indices that were created based on the theoretical grounds of Capabilities Approach. In 1997, the UNDP introduced the Human Poverty Index (HPI), which is aimed at measuring poverty in both industrialized and developing countries. The Quality of Life. HOME / PUBLICATIONS / The Quality of Life Citation: Sen A. Well-being and quality of life are too important to be left without intentional focus towards political change.. The approach emphasizes functional capabilities ("substantive freedoms", such as the ability to live to old age, engage in economic transactions, or participate in political activities); these are construed in terms of the substantive freedoms people have reason to value, instead of utility (happiness, desire-fulfillment or choice) or access to resources (income, commodities, assets).