In November of 2012, paleontologists announced yet another ceratopsian genus, Xenoceratops, the fossils of which were discovered in 80-million-year-old sediments in the Belly River Formation of Alberta, Canada. Based on what has been pieced together so far, Brachyceratops appears to have been a fairly typical ceratopsian, with the massive, horned and frilled face characteristic of the breed. Ceratopsians—the horned, frilled dinosaurs—were some of the most common plant-eaters of the later Mesozoic Era. First, this ceratopsian—a member of the same family that later gave rise to Triceratops and Centrosaurus—lived in Asia, whereas later ceratopsians were confined to North America. Hongshanosaurus was very similar to Psittacosaurus without actually being a species of Psittacosaurus: this early Cretaceous ceratopsian (horned, frilled dinosaur) was distinguished from its more famous contemporary only by the distinctive shape of its skull. Another characteristic feature is the pair of bony knobs located on either side of the midline, towards the end of the frill. How did Leptoceratops manage to be such a throwback to the distant progenitors of the ceratopsian family, tiny, dog-sized creatures like Psittacosaurus and Archaeoceratops that lived millions of years earlier? The name Pentaceratops ("five-horned face") is a bit of a misnomer: this ceratopsian actually had only three real horns, the other two being outgrowths of its cheekbones.   but this species is widely considered a junior synonym of A. ornatus today. The neck of NMC 8547 is exceptionally long, with four syncervicals, fused anterior cervical vertebrae. However, it's possible that Brachyceratops may one day be assigned as a new species of an existing genus of ceratopsian, especially if it turns out that juveniles changed their appearance as they aged. Although it's by far the best known, Triceratops was far from the only ceratopsian (horned, frilled dinosaur) of the Mesozoic Era. In 1914 Brown suggested that the distinctive frill and horn form of Anchiceratops were caused by sexual selection and intra-species recognition, as he could not explain the differences between the taxa by a difference in defence function. A curious exception to this rule is the ceratopsians (horned, frilled dinosaurs), which have yielded extensive fossil remains in North America but virtually nothing in China dating to the last half of the Cretaceous period. Several possible explanations were given: a decreased competition by related species; less habitat fragmentation by the recession of the Western Interior Seaway; and a more generalist lifestyle. One of a group of ceratopsian dinosaurs announced in 2010, Medusaceratops looked like a cross between a Triceratops and a Centrosaurus. As a result of their bizarre head ornamentation, the skulls of ceratopsians tend to preserve better in the fossil record than the rest of their skeletons. Titanosaur Dinosaur Pictures and Profiles, Duck-Billed Dinosaur Pictures and Profiles, Prosauropod Dinosaur Pictures and Profiles, 10 Famous Horned Dinosaurs That Weren't Triceratops. Nasutoceratops, first identified in 2013, was distinguished from others of its kind by its unusually large nose and the remarkably steer-like pair of horns jutting out from over its eyes. Gobiceratops (Greek for "Gobi horned face"); pronounced GO-bee-SEH-rah-tops. The three-foot-long Ajkaceratops lived about 85 million years ago, fairly early in ceratopsian terms, and it seems to have been most closely related to the central Asian Bagaceratops. (It's possible that Diabloceratops' frill was covered with a thin layer of skin that changed color during mating season.). (Eds.). Bravoceratops (Greek for "wild horned face"); pronounced BRAH-voe-SEH-rah-tops, Narrow snout; horns above eyes; large frill. Koreaceratops (Greek for "Korean horned face"); pronounced core-EE-ah-SEH-rah-tops, Middle Cretaceous (100 million years ago). 1990. However, not everyone agrees that this late Cretaceous ceratopsian deserves its own genus. Anchiceratops (Greek for "near the horned face"); pronounced ANN-chi-SEH-rah-tops, Moderate size; paired brow horns; notched frill. Even if these two herbivores did have a conflict the winner would probably be determined by who could intimidate the other not by who would win a full on fight. & Gillette, David D. & Norell, Mark A. "Eoceratopsinae" however soon fell into disuse as a taxon.  The frill has deep arterial grooves on both the upper and the underside. For all intents and purposes, Albertaceratops wasn't much different from other horned, frilled dinosaurs of the late Cretaceous period, with the exception of its unusually long brow horns combined with a Centrosaurus-like skull. The skull frill was elongated and rectangular, its edges adorned by coarse triangular projections. In M. J. Ryan, B. J. Chinnery-Allgeier, D. A. Eberth (eds. Named after the wife of the man who discovered its remains, Avaceratops may have been an unusually big-headed ceratopsian. Like other ceratopsids, A. ornatus was a quadrupedal herbivore with three horns on its face, a parrot-like beak, and a long frill extending from the back of its head.  The saltwater plesiosaur Leurospondylus was present and freshwater environments were populated by turtles, Champsosaurus, and crocodilians like Leidyosuchus and Stangerochampsa. To judge by its underlying skeletal structure, Mojoceratops' frill was probably heart-shaped, which was fitting in that males used their frills to broadcast sexual availability (or desire) to the females of the herd. Coronosaurus (Greek for "crown lizard"); pronounced core-OH-no-SORE-us. Leptoceratops is an object lesson in how "primitive" dinosaurs sometimes lived directly alongside their more evolved cousins. Wouldn't you know it, Arrhinoceratops had a horn after all, making it a very close cousin of Triceratops and Torosaurus (which may have been the same dinosaur). Montanoceratops (Greek for "Montana horned face"); pronounced mon-TAN-oh-SEH-rah-tops. Most experts believe this dinosaur was actually a juvenile of a similar ceratopsian of late Cretaceous Mongolia, Bagaceratops, and it may even conceivably have been a species of Protoceratops. (2013) however, showed that the decline in turtle diversity, which was previously attributed to climate, coincided instead with changes in soil drainage conditions, and was limited by aridity, landscape instability, and migratory barriers. At first glance, this ceratopsian (horned, frilled dinosaur) looks indistinguishable from its better-known cousin Triceratops, until you notice the small, triangular projections on the top of Anchiceratops' massive frill (which, like most such anatomical features, were probably a sexually selected characteristic). Most of the ceratopsians ("horned faces") of the late Cretaceous period were gigantic, multi-ton earth-shakers like Triceratops, but millions of years earlier, in the eastern regions of Asia, these dinosaurs were much more petite. These are exceptionally wide and coarse. Wendiceratops (Greek for "Wendy's horned face"); pronounced WEN-dee-SEH-rah-tops. ): The Dinosauria, 2nd, Berkeley: University of California Press. Mallon presumed that the synsacrum, the fused vertebrae supporting the pelvis, had shifted to the rear. Sternberg had originally designated a smaller skull as the type specimen for a new species Anchiceratops longirostris, because of its size and its horns which are significantly more slender and point forward instead of upward. Rectangular in shape, the frill is edged by large epoccipitals, which are osteoderms in the form of triangular bony projections. This three-foot-long herbivore looks more like an ornithopod and is only identified as a ceratopsian thanks to the unique structure of its beak. The skulls are different with respect to their proportions (e.g. Xuanhaceratops (Greek for "Xuanhua horned face"); pronounced ZHWAN-ha-SEH-rah-tops, Late Jurassic (160-150 million years ago), Small size; beaked snout; bipedal posture. Osteology of the Reptiles, University of Chicago Press 1-772, D. A. Russell and T. P. Chamney. Judiceratops (Greek for "Judith River horned face"); pronounced JOO-dee-SEH-rah-tops, Two brow horns; large frill with triangular serrations. Likewise there was no proof of sexual dimorphism. The smallest ceratopsian yet discovered in North America (it was dug up very close to Canada's Dinosaur Provincial Park), Gryphoceratops was closely related to the equally "basal" Leptoceratops. , Anchiceratops frills are very distinctive. The name Achelousaurus (pronounced with a hard "k," not like a sneeze) merits some explanation. Unescoceratops (Greek for "UNESCO horned face"); pronounced you-NESS-coe-SEH-rah-tops, Small size; short frill; tough, horny beak. The closest relative of Cerasinops appears to have been Leptoceratops, but otherwise, this ceratopsian is still poorly understood. It had two Triceratops-sized horns jutting out of the top of its head, but also a large, flat, vaguely butterfly-shaped frill reminiscent of the latter dinosaur. Its most distinctive feature was its skull, which was adorned with three horns and a frill. This otherwise standard ceratopsian was distinguished by the sole horn jutting out from its snout. 2004. In the anime, he is only used in its Spectral Armor form, as it was programmed into his card. "Variation in the skull of. As with other dinosaurs, Nasutoceratops likely evolved its facial characteristics as a means of intra-species recognition and sexual differentiation—(that is, males with bigger noses and straighter horns were more attractive to females. Unfortunately, pending additional fossil discoveries, there's not much else we can say about Albalophosaurus or its exact relationship to the early ceratopsians of the Asian mainland. C.M. Whereas the North American Leptoceratops coexisted with the larger, more familiar ceratopsians of its day, like Triceratops, Zhuchengceratops and its pig-sized ilk were the only horned, frilled dinosaurs of late Cretaceous Asia. Australian late Mesozoic continental tetrapods: some implications. Gryphoceratops (Greek for "Griffin horned face"); pronounced GRIFF-oh-SEH-rah-tops. Prehistoric World Prehistoric Creatures Rumble In The Jungle Dinosaur Illustration Dinosaur Art Extinct Animals Unusual Animals Tyrannosaurus Rex Animals And Pets. A study by Quinney et al. Based on this feature, one paleontologist has concluded that Albertaceratops is the most "basal" (earliest, simplest) ceratopsian in the Centrosaurus lineage. Einiosaurus was distinguished from its more famous cousins (like Centrosaurus and Triceratops) by the single, downward-curving horn jutting out from the middle of its snout. The vertebral column contains seventy-four vertebrae: ten of the neck, thirteen dorsals, twelve sacrals and thirty-nine caudals. Vagaceratops was characterized by its short nasal horn and broad, flat, relatively unadorned frill, which is somewhat odd since Kosmoceratops possessed the most ornate frill of any identified ceratopsian. One among dozens of ceratopsian genera of the late Cretaceous period, Prenoceratops stands out from the pack in at least one way: its fossils were discovered in Montana's famous Two Medicine Formation. In 1990, Peter Dodson and Phil Currie placed it in the Chasmosaurinae. The prevailing theory is that this dinosaur (or more likely one of its ancestors) crossed the Bering land bridge from Alaska to Siberia; perhaps, if the K/T Extinction hadn't intervened, Asia might have fully replenished its stock of ceratopsians. And second, Yamaceratops prospered tens of millions of years before its more famous descendants, during the middle rather than the late Cretaceous period. , Specimen NMC 8547, on which traditionally descriptions of the postcrania of Anchiceratops have been based, has many traits that are unique in the Chasmosaurinae. Aquilops (Greek for "eagle face"); pronounced ACK-will-ops, Middle Cretaceous (110-105 million years ago), Ceratopsians, or horned, frilled dinosaurs, followed a unique evolutionary pattern. Clearly, later ceratopsians followed this same basic body plan, but elaborated on the details. , In 2012, Jordan Cole Mallon e.a. , Most Anchiceratops fossils have been discovered in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation of Alberta, which belongs to the later part of the Campanian stage of the Late Cretaceous Period (Anchiceratops remains are known from the lower part of the formation, and range in age between 72.5-71 million years ago). Later however, paleontologists had concluded that the size and form of this skull falls within the expected range of variation seen in A. ornatus and that it was probably a member of that species. It remains a possibility that Achelousaurus was actually a growth stage of either Pachyrhinosaurus or Einiosaurus (or vice-versa), much as specimens of Torosaurus may actually have been superannuated Triceratops individuals. The other Anchiceratops skulls that are larger, more robust, and have much longer horns that point more vertically were proposed to represent males. Numerous fossil specimens of this dinosaur have been discovered in eastern Asia, pointing to its gregarious, herding nature. In this respect, Leptoceratops was smaller even than the most common "small" ceratopsian of the late Cretaceous period, the pig-sized Protoceratops. Barnum himself concluded that this dinosaur was intermediate between Triceratops and the relatively obscure Monoclonius, but more recent analyses have placed it (somewhat surprisingly) closer to Chasmosaurus and another lesser known ceratopsian, Arrhinoceratops. 6. The holotype, specimen AMNH 5251, is the back half of a skull, including the long frill, and two other partial skulls, specimens AMNH 5259 (the paratype) and AMNH 5273, were found at the same time, which are now stored in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. Judiceratops' claim to fame is that it's the earliest "chasmosaurine" dinosaur yet identified, ancestral to the better-known Chasmosaurus that lived a few million years later—a kinship you can instantly detect in these two dinosaurs' distinctively ornamented frills. What Gryphoceratops did have in common with Triceratops and its ilk was its tough, horny beak, which it used to clip off equally tough vegetation. Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; and Osmólska, Halszka (eds. Bob Strauss is a science writer and the author of several books, including "The Big Book of What, How and Why" and "A Field Guide to the Dinosaurs of North America. Einiosaurus (Indigenous/Greek for "buffalo lizard"); pronounced AY-nee-oh-SORE-us, Long, curving horn on snout; two horns on frill. Triceratops is the most famous of all ceratopsians (commonly known as horned dinosaurs), as well as one of the most iconic dinosaurs, not only because of its frill and 3 horns but also because it lived alongside other famous dinosaurs such as Tyrannosauru…  Over the decades Lull (1933), Romer (1956), Russell and Chamney (1967), Molnar (1980) agreed with the assignment to Ceratopsidae.  Anchiceratops remains were also recovered in terrestrial sediments from the St. Mary River Formation at the Scabby Butte locality in southwestern Alberta, however, the fossils cannot be referred to a specific species..  Frill fragments found in the early Maastrichtian Almond Formation of Wyoming in the United States resemble Anchiceratops. , Another specimen, NMC 8547 (or CMN 8547) collected by Sternberg in 1925, lacks most of the skull but is otherwise the most complete skeleton known from any ceratopsid, preserving a complete spinal column down to the last tail vertebra. Some popular science books state that it approached 20 feet (6 m) in length. & Olshevsky, George & Parrish, J. Michael & Weishampel, David B. J.C. Mallon and R. Holmes (2010) "Description of a complete and fully articulated chasmosaurine postcranium previously assigned to. You wouldn't know from looking at it, but Psittacosaurus (Greek for "parrot lizard") was an early member of the ceratopsian family. Other vertebrates present in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation at the time of Anchiceratops included reptiles, and amphibians. See more ideas about tyrannosaurus, tyrannosaurus rex, prehistoric animals. Just wondering if anybody knows the difference. Agujaceratops (Greek for "Aguja horned face"); pronounced ah-GOO-hah-SEH-rah-tops. Dino master enigma triceratops. This ceratopsian, the fossils of which were recently discovered in New Mexico's Ojo Alamo Formation, looked an awful lot like its more famous cousin Triceratops, though it did have a somewhat distinctive, roundish frill. P. Dodson and P.J. In its considerable size, however—about 20 feet from head to tail and one ton—Auroraceratops anticipated the larger, "classic" ceratopsians of the late Cretaceous period like Triceratops and Styracosaurus. Also the pelvis is very long.  In total, at least ten incomplete skulls have been recovered. The newly discovered Unescoceratops wasn't the smallest ceratopsian (horned, frilled dinosaur) that ever lived—that honor belongs to "basal" species like Leptoceratops—but it still didn't have much to brag about. 1915. Medusaceratops (Greek for "Medusa horned face"); pronounced meh-DOO-sah-SEH-rah-tops, Large head with elaborate frill; two horns on forehead. This would be an explanation for the robustness and extreme musculature of the limbs. A bewildering number of ceratopsians (horned, frilled dinosaurs) occupied North America during the late Cretaceous period, the end stage of a long evolutionary process that began a few million years earlier in eastern Asia. 1 Plot 2 Dinosaurs 3 Stage 4 Videos and photos 5 Trivia The battle starts with the Parasaurolophus walking into the arena and letting out its bellow. (By the way, Yinlong was portrayed in a National Geographic special as prey for the tiny tyrannosaur Guanlong, though direct evidence for this is lacking. , The Horseshoe Canyon Formation has been radiometrically dated as being between 74 and 67 million years old. The scattered remains of this ceratopsian were actually unearthed way back in 1958 and then consigned to a dusty museum drawer for over half a century. (By the way, for over a decade the type fossil of Aquilops was identified as Zephyrosaurus, a non-ceratopsian ornithopod, until a re-examination of the remains prompted this new assessment. However this dinosaur winds up being classified, the skull of Magnirostris is one of the best-preserved in the (small) ceratopsian fossil record, with a sharp, horny, roughly triangular beak that must have come in handy for shearing off tough vegetation. The first remains of Anchiceratops were discovered along the Red Deer River in the Canadian province of Alberta in 1912 by an expedition led by Barnum Brown. 1 Statistics 1.1 Arcade Stats 1.1.1 Availability 1.2 Anime Stats 1.3 TCG Stats 2 Trivia 3 Gallery 4 Navigation It is the second of three Attack Moves for Lightning. Tiny, cat-sized members of the breed (like Psittacosaurus) originated over 100 million years ago in Asia, during the early to middle Cretaceous period, and grew to Triceratops-like sizes by the time they reached North America in the late Cretaceous. Thanks for your information. Introduction. Eotriceratops (Greek for "dawn three-horned face"); pronounced EE-oh-try-SEH-rah-tops. Notably, almost identical specimens of this dinosaur were recently discovered on either side of the U.S./Canada border, straddling northern Montana and southern Alberta Province (hence this ceratopsian's species name, M. gemini). About Centrosaurus . Reconstructions of Vagaceratops have also been used in simulations of ceratopsian posture, as experts try to figure out whether these dinosaurs' legs were slightly splayed (like those of lizards) or more "locked in" and upright. Anatomically, this dinosaur shared some characteristics with the much smaller, "basal" ceratopsians that preceded it by millions of years (the most notable example being Psittacosaurus), but it was much bigger than these early plant-eaters, full-grown adults possibly weighing as much as a ton. Diceratops is now officially named "Nedoceratops" (sometimes unofficially "Diceratus"), but it may instead be a species of Triceratops (or the only known skull may belong to a Triceratops individual with a bone growth defect that made it lose its nose horn). The skull of Yinlong (Wikimedia Commons). Anchiceratops longirostris C.M. Dating to the early Cretaceous period, about 125 million years ago, Auroraceratops resembled a larger version of small, "basal" ceratopsians like Psittacosaurus and Archaeoceratops, with a minimal frill and the barest beginnings of a nasal horn. It was deposited during the gradual withdrawal of the Western Interior Seaway, during the Campanian and Maastrichtian stage of the Late Cretaceous period. Triceratops lived in the Late Cretaceous period, around 68 to 65.5 million years ago. Tantalizingly, the fossils of Yinlong bear some resemblance to those of Heterodontosaurus, a clue that the first ceratopsians evolved from equally small ornithopods about 160 million years ago. Despite its elevation to genus status, Agujaceratops is still considered to be a close relative of Chasmosaurus, and it also had a lot in common with another ceratopsian of late Cretaceous North America, Pentaceratops. One recent addition to the roster is Vagaceratops, which occupies a place very close to Kosmoceratops on the ceratopsian family tree (both of these "centrosaurine" ceratopsians were themselves closely related to Centrosaurus). Weishampel, H. Osmolska, and P. Dodson (eds. Agujaceratops was classified as a Chasmosaurus species (C. mariscalensis) until 2006 when a re-analysis of its fragmented remains revealed some distinctive characteristics. NMC 8547 is displayed as a half-mount with the better preserved right side showing, and completed with a cast skull replica of NMC 8535.  Some of these epoccipitals are on the side of the frill, formed by the squamosal; these episquamosals vary between five and nine in number. It's conceivable that this plant-eater occasionally walked on two legs, but definitive evidence for this is lacking. Weishampel, D.B., Barrett, P.M., Coria, R.A., Le Loueff, J., Xu X., Zhao X., Sahni, A., Gomani, E.M.P., & Noto, C.N. Coahuilaceratops (Greek for "Coahuila horned face"); pronounced CO-ah-HWEE-lah-SEH-rah-tops, Enormous head with long, paired, curving horns. Although it's a fairly obscure dinosaur, Yamaceratops (it was named after the Buddhist deity Yama) is important for two reasons. The Triceratops from Stanley and the Dinosaurs. In late Cretaceous central Asia, the pig-sized Protoceratops seems to have filled roughly the same evolutionary niche as the modern wildebeest—a common, relatively easy-to-kill source of food for hungry carnivorous dinosaurs. The discovery of numerous bones jumbled together (representing at least 15 separate individuals) indicates that this dinosaur may have traveled in herds, at least one of which reached a catastrophic end—possibly when all the members drowned while trying to cross a flooding river. Triceratops, as purchasable in Lego sets. The most distinctive feature is their large skull, among the largest of all land animals. Paleontologists are still sorting out the evolutionary relationships among these ancient dinosaurs; all we can say for certain is that the ceratopsians as a whole originated in Asia. The parietal bone, forming the rear edge and the middle of the frill, has smaller parietal fenestrae, window-like openings, than those seen in other chasmosaurines like Pentaceratops and Torosaurus. In most ways, Coahuilaceratops was a typical ceratopsian ("horned face") dinosaur of the late Cretaceous period: a slow-witted, big-headed herbivore that was the approximate size and weight of a small truck. I was not entirely convinced by the Torosaurus vs. T. rex piece earlier, and I’m similarly lukewarm to this. Cerasinops (Greek for "lesser horned face"); pronounced SEH-rah-SIGH-nops, Relatively small size; blunt head with horned beak. A titanic battle of epic proportions and quite possibly the ultimate dinosaur battle. Sternberg's material is now housed in the Canadian Museum of Nature in Ottawa. Anchiceratops vs Albertosaurus by Gregory S. Paul. (Eds.). Achelousaurus (Greek for "Achelous lizard"); pronounced AH-kell-oo-SORE-us, Late Cretaceous (80-65 million years ago), Medium size; large frill; bony knobs above eyes. As you might expect given its evolutionary position, the massive head of Diabloceratops was ornamented in a unique way: it lacked a horn on its snout, but had a medium-sized, Centrosaurus-like frill with two sharp horns jutting up from either side. If Triceratops means "three-horned face" and Pentaceratops means "five-horned face," a better name for Centrosaurus might have been Monoceratops (one-horned face). As with most such dinosaur appurtenances, it's clear that the oversized horns and frill of this dinosaur were meant to impress the opposite sex and help to propagate the species. Maximus (マキシムス) is an altered Triceratops created by Seth and given to Sheer. One such smaller dinosaur was Bagaceratops, which only measured about three feet long from snout to tail and weighed just 50 pounds. Because there's a lot paleontologists don't know about the growth stages of ceratopsians, it may yet turn out that Avaceratops was a species of an existing genus; as things stand, it seems to have occupied an intermediate evolutionary stage between the better-known Centrosaurus and Triceratops. Even as some paleontologists argue that the roster of ceratopsians (horned, frilled dinosaurs) needs to be severely trimmed—on the theory that some of these dinosaurs were actually growth stages of existing dinosaurs—others have persisted in naming new genera.  In 1915, William Diller Matthew refined this to the Ceratopsidae. T. Rexes lived in the upper Cretaceous Period, around 67 to 65.5 million years ago. The last episquamosal is very large, approaching the size of the three osteoderms per side on the rear edge of the frill, the epiparietals. Dinosaur distribution. This small mixup aside, Arrhinoceratops was very much like other ceratopsians of the late Cretaceous period, a four-footed, elephant-sized herbivore that likely used its long horns to battle other males for the right to mate. Subsequent dating of its fossil showed that Zuniceratops lived 10 million years before the bigger ceratopsians of the late Cretaceous period, such as Triceratops and Styracosaurus—making it the earliest known ceratopsian in North America. This herbivore had a single, rhino-like horn projecting from the top of its snout, as well as a pair of steer-like horns jutting out sideways from the top of its eyes. Ceratopsians are often described with reference to late Cretaceous giants like Triceratops and Styracosaurus, but the fact is that these herbivores existed (in less impressive form) as far back as the late Jurassic period. ), New Perspectives on Horned Dinosaurs: The Royal Tyrrell Museum Ceratopsian Symposium. They were two of the last species of dinosaurs to exist before mass extinction. A good example is Eotriceratops, which the average person would find virtually indistinguishable from Triceratops but which merits its own name thanks to some obscure anatomical features (for example, the shape of its jugal horn, epoccipitals, and premaxilla). Names aside, Torosaurus was a typical ceratopsian—a member of the family of horned, frilled, elephant-sized dinosaurs that populated the North American continent during the late Cretaceous period, the most famous examples of which were Triceratops and Centrosaurus. Torosaurus (Greek for "pierced lizard"); pronounced TORE-oh-SORE-us. Some paleontologists speculate that Ajkaceratops lived on one of the numerous small islands dotting late Cretaceous Europe, which would account for its stunted size (given the relative lack of available resources).
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