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aspergillus flavus causes what disease

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The number of plants that have reportedly caused acute liver damage is legion.163 The pattern is a rise in serum activities of the so-called liver enzymes (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases), which is usually rapidly reversible; occasionally death can occur. Isavuconazole versus voriconazole for primary treatment of invasive mould disease caused by Aspergillus and other filamentous fungi (SECURE): a phase 3, randomised-controlled, non-inferiority trial. When consumed, aflatoxins, ST, fumonisins and trichothecenes can pose a severe health hazard to animals and humans. AFRS is characterised by the accumulation of eosinophilic mucin within the sinuses — a tenacious secretion that contains fungal hyphae and intense eosinophilic inflammation[34]. See Box 2 for side effects of treatment. A. oryzae and A. niger are widely used for industrial purposes for enzymes, peptides and other organic compound productions, whereas A. sojae is used for soy sauce fermentation, which is a billion dollar industry worldwide. Some strains of A. nidulans, which is used for drug development and also as a model organism in developmental biology, produce sterigmatocystins (ST), precursors of aflatoxins. N Engl J Med 2000;342(11):756–762. Lancet 2016;387(10020):760–769. Cotton seed lots with aflatoxin levels of above 20 ppb cannot be sold for dairy feed, as a small proportion of the toxin can be transferred to the milk of the dairy cows, where it is slightly modified to aflatoxin M1. Aspergillus is a type of fungus (a … It can be readily distinguished morphologically by the production of a bright yellow-green conidial color, when cultured on malt extract agar or Czapek yeast extract agar. Patients with CPA have symptoms that persist for months or years. Assays of cultured A. flavus and A. fumigatus isolated from tissues have shown these fungi can produce AFs, and chemical analyses of infected tissues have shown aflatoxins to be present (Matsumura and Mori, 1998; Mori et al., 1998; Pepeljnjak et al., 2004). cause disease in a broad range of organisms, but it is unknown if strains are specialized for particular hosts. The ubiquitous fungus Aspergillus is especially prevalent in the air. How you get aspergillosis. Genomics studies have revealed that proteins necessary for fungal development are also necessary for regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis and that the two processes are linked (Bayram et al., 2008; Wiemann et al., 2010). These medicines can cause hepatotoxicity and peripheral neuropathy. doi: 10.3109/13693786.2010.499916, Citation: The Pharmaceutical Journal, July 2019, Vol 303, No 7927, online | PLoS One 2018;13(4):e0193732. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis: the latest in diagnosis and management. Aspergillosis is an infection, allergic reaction, or fungal growth caused by the Aspergillus fungus. And where are we going? The fungus Aspergillus fumigatus causes allergic diseases, respiratory illnesses, and bloodstream infections. It causes significant losses in corn, peanuts, cottonseed, and tree nuts… An approach to fulminant invasive fungal rhinosinusitis in the immunocompromised host. PMID: 1904160, [39] Gillespie MB, O’Malley BW & Francis HW. It is also increasingly being recognised as a complication of severe influenza (19%), even in immunocompetent patients[11]. Aspergillus flavus is the second most common species of Aspergillus in humans after Aspergillus fumigatus. The fungal infection Saprolegniosis appears on fish as waters get cold in winter, but it shouldn’t be cause for alarm, officials say. Aspergillus species intrinsically resistant to antifungal agents. Diseases caused by the genus Aspergillus are named aspergillosis. This infectious disease mainly affects immunosuppressed patients and is linked to elevated mortality rates. Although most people are often exposed to aspergillus, infections caused … The fungus is often found growing on dead leaves, stored grain, compost piles, or in other decaying vegetation. From: Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences (Second Edition), 2011, A.D.W. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1986;92(6):981–988. 2002a). Cookies are small text files stored on the device you are using to access this website. Surgical management may be an option in CPA patients with localised disease[25]. doi: 10.1002/lary.20578, [34] Luong A & Marple BF. PMID: 3097424, [19] Judson MA & Stevens DA. Eur Respir J 2016;47(1):45–68. Aspergillus flavus is very closely related to A. oryzae, a species used in the manufacture of Asian fermented foods (Chang and Ehrlich, 2010). 1996; 1997a, 1997b). AILP exhibited hemagglutinating activity on papain-treated human and rabbit erythrocytes and it represents a novel variant in the lectin–arcelin-α-amylase inhibitor family of proteins with lectin-like and α-amylase inhibitory activities [13]. are widely distributed fungal moulds found in soil and other organic matter. Chest 2006;130(1):222–226. Available at: http://new.antifungalinteractions.com/index.php (accessed July 2019), [46] Van Der Linden JW, Warris A & Verweij PE. The … Here we describe a patient with an aspergilloma who had A. flavus recovered from a surgical specimen. Around 20 species have so far been reported as causative agents of opportunistic infections in man. Photo from Arkansas Game and Fish Commission. In A. flavus 55 putative secondary metabolite clusters have been identified (Khaldi et al., 2010). ABPA is a complex hypersensitivity response to inhaled Aspergillus. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01159-9, [16] Hayes GE & Novak-Frazer L. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis — where are we? Aspergillus flavus. Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and prolonged neutropenia following chemotherapy are significant risk factors (IPA occurs in 7–15% of these patients)[1]. These typically include weight loss, cough, shortness of breath and haemoptysis[20],[24]. Aspergillus-related disease is rare, but results in high mortality rates. The most common species of … The fungus usually grows on decaying vegetation and dead leaves. 1961). Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is a term used to describe several diseases including aspergilloma, chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis (CCPA), chronic fibrosing pulmonary aspergillosis (CFPA) and Aspergillus nodules. Ng, in Comprehensive Biotechnology (Second Edition), 2011. Risk factors include the following: Asthma; Fibrosis; Tuberculosis or other lung infections; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Aflatoxins cause severe damage to the liver, and prognosis is generally poor even with early and aggressive treatment. It’s almost impossible to completely avoid breathing in some Aspergillus spores. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Acute invasive Aspergillus rhinosinusitis. Everyday activities, such as gardening and household vacuum cleaning, can lead to the airborne release of Aspergillus spores. A. clavatus is not commonly associated with a disease. Subscribe to our free alerts. Pulmonary aspergilloma. Typically, aflatoxigenic fungi infect animals and humans that are immunocompromised. The fungi that produce aflatoxin grow on crops such as peanuts (especially) and wheat, corn, beans and rice. Aspergillus mold can often be found on dead leaves, compost piles and other decaying vegetable matter, stored grain, and even foods and spices. A number of DNA-based techniques have been developed to identify and monitor Aspergillus section Flavi fungal isolates in foods. As substrates and inhibitors of cytochrome P450 enzymes, triazoles can interact with a variety of drugs as inhibitors or substrates (e.g. The most common cause of human infection is A. Chronic granulomatous invasive fungal rhinosinusitis is also known as primary paranasal granuloma and indolent fungal sinusitis; it develops in immunocompetent patients or well-controlled diabetics, almost exclusively in association with Aspergillus flavus … cyclosporine, tacrolimus and sirolimus) and certain statins (e.g. This is the indolent form of invasive sinus disease and patients experience chronic rhinosinusitis symptoms, such as mucopurulent nasal discharge, nasal congestion, sinus pain and impaired sense of smell, which persist for several months. Among these, Aspergillus fumigatus is the most commonly isolated species, followed by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus … Aspergillus Website Newsletters Our most recent newsletters (since August 2018) can be found here. Dobson, in Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences (Second Edition), 2011. Payne, in Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology (Second Edition), 2014. Aspergillus ear rot is a fungal disease most commonly caused by Aspergillus flavus although it can be associated with other Aspergillus species. Some encode siderophores (small, high-affinity iron-chelating compounds) which are necessary for iron transport, while others have been identified as encoding genes involved in biosynthesis of known A. flavus toxins (see below). doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2016.10.005, [3] Arendrup MC, O’Driscoll BR, Petersen E & Denning DW. These include people with diabetes and those using corticosteroids. There remains a vast gap in our understanding of the coordinated global regulation of toxin formation, of the signal transduction pathways underlying primary and secondary metabolisms, of the biotic and abiotic factors that affect toxin formation, and of the interactions of mycotoxigenic fungi and their host plants during infection. Want to keep up with the latest news, comment and CPD articles in pharmacy and science? Aspergillus ear rot is one of the most important diseases of corn. In general, CPA occurs in patients who are not overtly immunocompromised, but most have a history of pulmonary disease that has resulted in the formation of a cavity or bulla. The assembled A. oryzae and A. flavus genomes are each 37 Mb and are organized into eight chromosomes. There are different types of Aspergillus fungi which cause Aspergillosis and some of the common ones responsible for disease in humans include: Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus. The fungus is mostly found in soil as saprophytes, but it has a broad host range as an opportunistic pathogen. These are predicted to encode about 12 000 proteins (Machida et al., 2005; Payne et al., 2006). when fungal hyphae intertwine into dense collections]) develop over a period of several months[20]. Epidemiology and outcome of mould infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Plants that have been reported to cause acute liver damage include Breynia officinalis,164 Callilepis laureola (ox-eye daisy),165 Camellia sinensis (green tea),166 Chelidonium majus (celandine),167 Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh; Figure 76.21),168,169 Larrea tridentata (chaparral),170 Piper methysticum (kava; Figure 76.20; see below under Psychotropic drugs), Polygonum multiflorum,171 Symphytum officinale (comfrey; see below under Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome)172,173 and Teucrium spp.174,175 Of these, black cohosh, chaparral, comfrey, and kava are the most common culprits. The disease also occurs in patients with cystic fibrosis[32]. Fungus ball of the paranasal sinuses: experience in 160 patients treated with endoscopic surgery. Aspergillus nodules; another presentation of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Thorax 2015;70(3):270–277. Aspergillus oryzae is just one example of a nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus. Infection of corn by A. flavus and consequent disease development is favored by hot (>86F) dry … doi: 10.1007/s11882-004-0013-5, [35] deShazo RD, O’Brien M, Chapin K & Soto-Aguilar M. A new classification and diagnostic criteria for invasive fungal sinusitis. Lancet Respir Med 2018;6(10):782–792. Sometimes there is also damage to the lungs. Aspergillosis is a disease caused by the fungus Aspergillus. doi: 10.3390/jof2020018, [17] Shah R, Vaideeswar P & Pandit SP. Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus clavatus can cause allergic disease. This chapter reviews the mechanism of AFB1-induced oxidative stress and focuses on the protective effects of vitamins A, C, and E on reducing this stress. It is caused primarily by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, but a few other Aspergillus species may be involved. In outdoor environments, Aspergillus can be found in[4]: Inside buildings, Aspergillus can be found in: Most studies investigating seasonal variations in fungal exposure report an increase in airborne Aspergillus during the autumn and winter months in the Northern Hemisphere[4]. Fungal Biology Reviews 2011;25(3):151–157. How you get aspergillosis. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus produce aflatoxins that are toxic to the liver and are carcinogenic;176 e.g. Aspergillus flavus produces conidial heads that are typically radiate and highly variable in both shape and size, usually possessing relatively thin, finely roughened, or, rarely, smooth walls. Most nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates contain deletions in the aflatoxin gene cluster. The propagules in the soil, which are now conidia, are dispersed by wind and insects (such as stink bugs or lygus bugs). Aspergillus flavus can produce aflatoxins on cheddar cheese, with the toxin penetrating up to 1.28 cm into the cheese. Aspergillosis is a clinical infection caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus which can lead to allergic, superficial, saprophytic or invasive diseases. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1998;124(5):520–526. Although Aspergillus flavus is the second leading cause of both invasive and non-invasive aspergillosis 2, aspergillomas have rarely been associated with this species, the vast majority of cases being due to Aspergillus fumigatus. An estimated 200,000 cases of these infections occur worldwide every year. Aspergillus clavatus. It inhibited conidial germination and hyphal growth of A. flavus. people with weakened immune systems and/or damaged lungs). The illnesses resulting from aspergillosis usually affect the respiratory system, but their signs and severity vary greatly.The mold that triggers the illnesses, aspergillus, is everywhere — indoors and outdoors. This requires a combination of characteristics that are all present for at least three months: Aspergillus antibody (precipitins or Aspergillus- specific immunoglobulin [Ig] G) is elevated in over 90% of patients. This is an infection that mainly attacks the respiratory system, but can also affect the eyes and ear canals. People with weak immune systems are the most and easily affected group. doi: 10.1183/13993003.00583-2015, [26] Greenberger PA. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Aspergillosis may develop in healthy hosts following significant environmental exposure to Aspergillus spores, for example following the handling of tree-bark chippings[3]. Acute invasive Aspergillus rhinosinusitis is an aggressive disease with a high mortality rate and often results in ocular and intracerebral extension (invasion into the eye and cerebrum). Clin Microbiol Rev 2005;18(1):44–69. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Clin Transl Allergy 2014;4:14. doi: 10.1186/2045-7022-4-14, [42] Aspergillus & Aspergillosis Website. A. nomius has been identified as an etiology of keratitis. If left untreated, CCPA may progress and cause extensive fibrotic destruction of lung tissue; at this point it is classified as CFPA — a condition associated with significant respiratory compromise[21]. c) The primary cause of yeast infections in human d) All of the above 3) Which of the following pathogenic fungi is the member of human microbiota? Underlying conditions in chronic pulmonary aspergillosis including simple aspergilloma. Early diagnosis is critical to survival; however, a lung tissue biopsy is often not feasible. doi: 10.1378/chest.130.2.442, [30] Stevens DA, Schwartz HJ, Lee JY et al. A. fumigatus neither infects plants nor is of any industrial value, instead it is a human pathogen that infects human lungs causing both invasive and noninvasive human aspergillosis, especially to those who are immunocompromised patients and can be fatal (Rankin 1953; Denning 1998). Figure 1. A four-month course of oral antifungal therapy is the mainstay of treatment. 2002f; Yu 2003). It predominantly occurs in immunocompromised patients[37]. Nasal polyps are commonly associated with Aspergillus sensitisation (raised Aspergillus IgE) and can lead to nasal obstruction and local infection. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: lessons from 126 patients attending a chest clinic in north India. The numbers of genes encoding secretory hydrolytic enzymes, proteins involved in amino acid metabolism, and amino acid/sugar uptake transporters are increased in A. oryzae compared to A. flavus. It is also common in cereal-based foods. Aspergillus ear rot is one of the most important diseases of corn. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: review of literature and proposal of new diagnostic and classification criteria. Neutropenia predisposes to aspergillus infection. Today in many developing countries, these toxins are leading cause of some liver cancers and serious gastrointestinal problems. Laryngoscope 2009;119(11):2275–2279. Other articles where Aspergillus flavus is discussed: aspergillosis: fumigatus, A. flavus, and A. niger, and that produce a variety of effects on humans, ranging from no illness to allergic reactions to mild pneumonia to overwhelming generalized infection. There are more than a hundred different species but most human disease is caused by Aspergillus fumigatus or Aspergillus niger.Occasionally, Aspergillus clavatus and Aspergillus flavus cause human illness. Curr Opin Investig Drugs 2001;2(10):1375–1377. We evaluated isolates of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus nidulans for their ability to infect bean leaves, corn kernels, and insects (Galleria mellonella). Aspergillus can cause a variety of clinical syndromes; variable host–pathogen interactions result in a spectrum of Aspergillus-related diseases, from hypersensitivity responses leading to ABPA through to invasive diseases associated with severely immunocompromised states[5]. Focuses on the strategic elements of medicines management. doi: 10.1086/588660, [8] Singh N & Paterson DL. However, people with weakened immune systems or lung diseases are at a higher risk of developing health problems due to Aspergillus. What is aspergillus? IPA may also occur in non-neutropenic hosts, such as those receiving high-dose corticosteroids, solid organ transplant recipients (up to 20%), critically ill patients in intensive care units (up to 5%), patients with AIDS (4% at autopsy), patients with lung cancer (2.6%) and those hospitalised with COPD (1.3–3.9%)[8],[9],[10]. These are generally well tolerated, although they may cause hepatotoxicity. A. flavus and A. parasiticus produce aflatoxins. Therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended during treatment with triazole antifungals[14] (see Box 2). Common hosts of the pathogen are cereal grains, legumes, and tree nuts. The synthetic liquid medium used for growing the microorganism contained 2.0 g asparagine, 1.0 g K2PO4, 0.5 g MgSO4, 2.0 g glucose, 5.0 mg thiamine hydrochloride, 1.45 mg Fe(NO3)3.9H2O, 0,88 mg ZnSO4.7H2O and 0.31 mg MnSO4.4H2O/liter water.The pH was adjusted to 6.0. In most cases, aspergillosis is caused by a type of mold called Aspergillus fumigatus. Specifically, A. flavus infection causes … 2002a; Brown et al. Chronic invasive Aspergillus rhinosinusitis is associated with relatively mild immunocompromised states. Intensive Care Med 2007;33(10):1694–1703. PMID: 11890350, [20] Denning DW, Riniotis K, Dobrashian R & Sambatakou H. Chronic cavitary and fibrosing pulmonary and pleural aspergillosis: case series, proposed nomenclature change, and review. Med Mycol 2011;49(Suppl 1):S82–S89. Invasive disease can be further sub-divided into acute and chronic forms[36]. doi: 10.1080/14740338.2017.1273900, [45] Atherton G. Antifungal interactions — professionals. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193732, [44] Girmenia C & Iori AP. AILP was similar in amino acid sequence to lectin members of a lectin–arcelin-α-amylase inhibitor family described in common bean. CPA is a chronic, progressive lung infection and the different manifestations of the disease are identified by characteristic radiographic findings (see Figure 1), although there is often considerable overlap between them[5],[16]. Clin Infect Dis 2003;37(Suppl 3):S265–S280. They have also been isolated in air-conditioning systems. Mycotoxins can pose a severe health hazard to animals and humans. Foods and drinks contaminated with aflatoxins cause global health and environmental problems. Aspergillus flavus is the second most frequent species causing invasive aspergillosis and is the leading cause of acute invasive fungal sinusitis. However, relapse is common (50%) and longer therapy may be required[31]. Aspergillus flavus produces aflatoxin which is both a toxin and a carcinogen and which can potentially contaminate foods such as nuts. The mold spores may be carried indoors on shoes and clothing and can grow on carpeting. Clin Infect Dis 2010;50(12):1559–1567. Common hosts of the pathogen are cereal grains, legumes, and tree nuts. Disease in Humans. The most common diseases that predispose patients to CPA include pulmonary tuberculosis, non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection, ABPA, surgically resected lung cancer, pneumothorax with bulla formation and COPD[23]. Aspergillus flavus is found globally as a saprophyte in soils and causes disease on many important agriculture crops. It is estimated that the prevalence of ABPA among patients with asthma is 1–2.5% and should be suspected in patients with poorly controlled or corticosteroid-dependant asthma[27]. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) occurs in immunocompetent patients and arises as a result of a localised allergic reaction against colonising Aspergillus or other fungi. Sporadic, but severe, outbreaks of aflatoxin contamination also occur in corn grown in the Midwest. Triazole resistance is an increasing problem in two contexts: The latter is more common in those with high fungal burdens, low antifungal drug levels and with itraconazole. Invasive aspergillosis. A. clavatus is pathogenic and capable of producing mycotoxins, specifically the toxin patulin, which is associated with several pulmonary diseases in humans and other mammals. PMID: 7996622, [38] Talbot GH, Huang A & Provencher M. Invasive Aspergillus rhinosinusitis in patients with acute leukemia. Fungal balls usually affect only one sinus cavity[33]. European regulatory agencies are more stringent and restrict aflatoxin levels to as low as 5 ppb (Sharma and Salunkhe 1991; Bhatnagar et al. In cases of triazole intolerance or treatment failure, shorter courses of intravenous therapy with amphotericin B or an echinocandin may be used. Blood 2018;131(17):1955–1959. As part of its life cycle, Aspergillus releases large quantities of conidia (asexual spores) into the air and, therefore, can be found in both outdoor and indoor environments. A. flavus is the second most common agent of aspergillosis, the first being Aspergillus fumigatus. Exposure to the fungus … Mycotoxins vary greatly in their potency and toxic effects. This requires repeated isolation of Aspergillus from sputum samples in a patient with typical symptoms, which have been present for at least four weeks[31]. V. Loscos, ... R. Canela, in Progress in Biotechnology, 1998. Results of surgical treatment. Sclerotia germinate to produce additional hyphae and asexual spores call conidia. Common hosts of the pathogen are cereal grains, legumes, and tree nuts. The distinction between invasive and non-invasive disease can be made based on histopathological findings from biopsy samples. Cookie policy: This site uses cookies (small files stored on your computer) to simplify and improve your experience of this website. Within the last decade, significant advances have been made in mycotoxin detection methods and control strategies as well as in understanding the biochemistry, genetics and regulation of mycotoxin biosynthesis. The treatment of pulmonary aspergilloma. Aspergillus i nfections in transplant recipients. Acute pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent subjects after exposure to bark chippings. Specifically, A. flavus infection causes … Spores of Aspergillus are present in the air so most people breathe them in every day. Specifically, A. flavus infection causes ear rot in corn and yellow mold in peanuts either before or after harvest. Last Updated on September 6, 2020 by Sagar Aryal. 2002a). The Aspergillus flavus fungus attacks the cob and the grains, producing a greenish-yellow discoloration of them. Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust. Aspergillus nigeris usually a saprophytic organism but … Aspergillosis is caused by a fungus called aspergillus. A. flavus may invade arteries of the lung or brain and cause infarction. 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The clinical spectrum of pulmonary aspergillosis. This supports the idea that gene expansion in A. oryzae resulted from its domestication as a species better adapted for fermentation than is the typical A. flavus. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) most commonly occurs in severely immunocompromised patients and is characterised histopathologically by the invasion of lung tissue with hyphae[7]. Aspergillus flavus is also the second leading cause of aspergillosis in humans. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an unusual ink smudge pattern deep in a cervical abscess. Be further sub-divided into acute and chronic forms [ 36 ] Brownlee,. ):981–988 2000 ; 342 ( 11 ):756–762 an option in CPA patients with chronic pulmonary:... With neutropenia severity and duration only one sinus cavity [ 33 ] P... P.-K. Chang,... R. Canela, in Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology ( Edition... 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And chronic forms [ 36 ] Chakrabarti a, Denning DW flavushas been found to cause liver typical... Of keratitis mortality rates bits of mould infections in man ] Waitzman AA Birt! Images form patients with acute leukemia may invade arteries of the antigen galactomannan 7. Re & Kontoyiannis DP differs depending on the safety and interactions of drugs. Coppock,... R. Canela, in Veterinary Toxicology ( second Edition ), 2014 or sclerotia and! Nomius has been implicated in causing outbreaks of aflatoxin contamination in corn, peanuts, cottonseed, which! Progress in Biotechnology, 1998 ) to aspergillus flavus causes what disease members of a lectin–arcelin-α-amylase inhibitor family described in common bean metabolism! Aspergillosis in immunocompetent subjects after exposure to bark chippings clinical infection caused by the genus Aspergillus over. Range as an opportunistic pathogen.1 the genus Aspergillus which can eliminate the hyphae [ ]. 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