Regarding fossils, which were found within stones, Avicenna gave an explicit explanation of their origin from the petrifaction of plants and animals by mineralising to the petrifying virtue within stones: “If what is said concerning the petrifaction of animals and plants is true, the cause of this (phenomenon) is a powerful mineralizing and petrifying virtue which arises in certain stony spots, or emanates suddenly from the earth during earthquakes and subsidences, and petrifies whatever comes into contact with it. Annals of Science, Vol. A definite layer of deposit can form only upon a solid base; 2. In other parts of Kitab Al-Shifa, Avicenna went beyond mountains and rocks, he wrote about meteorology, water salinity and other aspects of Earth, particularly the concepts of formation and disintegration or decomposition. Al-Rawi, M. M., 1977. 31. The fundamental principles of Geology, such as the law of superposition of strata and uniformity in geologic processes were the products of Avicenna’s time in the eleventh century CE. University of Aleppo, Syria. This action, however, took place and was completed only in the course of many ages, so that the trace of each individual flood has not been left; only that of the most recent of them can be seen”. IBN SINA (AVICENNA). These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. In: Uniformity and Simplicity (GSA Special Paper 89) edited by C. C. ALBRETTON, Jr., p. 3-33, The Geological Society of America. Stones are formed, then, either by the hardening of agglutinative clay in the sun, or by the coagulation of aquosity by a desiccative earthy quality, or by reason of a desiccation through heat”. Paper presented to the conference on the Impact of Arab and Islamic Civilisation, December 1983, Oxford University, England. Geologically, the area studied consists of sedimentary rocks belonging to different geological ages, and recent alluvium deposits along the Amur Darya River. Press, Cambridge. 5 0 obj Pre-Lamb experiment Lamb experiment Post-Lamb experiment Summary Last results for H and D hydrogen, hydrogen-like atoms, positronium, muonic atoms microwave spectroscopy has been surpassed by optical measurements in the last decade accuracy of the radiofrequency measurements is limited by width of the 2P state (about 100 MHz) direct measurements and ﬁne structure optical,two photon … —Rasa‘l Ikhwan Al-Safa”. Hutton’s theory of the Earth had essentially called for the recognition of the fact that earth processes are continuous on Earth. “Hutton demonstrated the plutonic origin of granite and recognised the significance of angular unconformities. Librairie Orientaliste, Paul Geuthner, 1927, p. 18): “We shall begin by establishing the condition of the formation of mountains and the opinions that must be known upon this subject. The National Geographical Magazine, Vol. No votes so far! Al-Rawi, M. M., 1988. %PDF-1.2 Those very ideas were embodied in Avicenna’s work in Kitab Al-Shifa and the work of many other Muslim natural scientists, such as Ikhwan Al-Safa and Al-Biruni. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. This may be taken as what is definitely known about mountains and the hollows and passes between them… The abundance of stone in them is due to the abundance, in the sea, of clay, which was afterwards exposed. This lead to the doctrine of uniformitarianism or the Present is the Key to the Past. However, in a rather philosophical account titled the “Discovery of Time”, Toulumin and Goodfield (1965), have acknowledged Avicenna’s contribution in the field of geologic time: “Around A.D. 1000, Avicenna was already suggesting a hypothesis about the origin of mountain ranges, which in the Christian world, would still have been considered quite radical eight hundred years later”. Al-Ward, A. The area presently stretches along the northern mountains of Afghanistan and Turkmenistan, as well as Western Uzbekistan. In general, stone is formed in two ways only (a) through the hardening of clay, and (b) by the congelation of waters… Stone has been formed from flowing water in two ways (a) by the congelation of water as it falls drop by drop or as a whole during its flow, and (b) by the deposition from it, in its course, of something which adheres to the surface of its bed and (then) petrifies. Avicenna (Ibn Sina, 980–1037) war ein Philosoph der hanbalitischen und muʿtazilistischen Schule und einer der bedeutendsten Ärzte, Denker und Forscher der Medizingeschichte. It was an inspiring source of thought to the founders of geological thought in Europe (such as Leonardo Da Vinci and Steno in the seventeenth century, and most probably later on James Hutton in the eighteenth century). Ibn Sina, the 10th century Philosopher, once conducted a famous experiment: He put two identical lambs in two separate cages. He contributed to natural sciences (which he called Attabieyat) along with other natural philosophers such as Ikhwan Al-Safa, Al-Biruni and many others. The Middle East as a World Centre of Science and Medicine. (In Arabic). To conclude this discussion, it is appropriate to quote again Toulmin and Goodfield (1965) on the Discovery of Time: “For the time being (Avicenna’s time), these insights were not followed up, and the full antiquity of the world remained unsuspected”. History of the Earth. The eighteenth century C.E. The continuation of geological processes or the doctrine of uniformitarianism. Avicenna did The latest plate tectonic theory attracted many scientists to the debate on both sides, as well as between creationists and evolutionists. ʿAbd Allāh ibn Sīnā; geboren kurz vor 980:S. 10 in Afschana bei Buchara in Chorasan; gestorben im Juni 1037 in Hamadan), kurz Ibn Sina und vermutlich über eine hebräische Zwischenstufe wie Aven Zina:S. 135 latinisiert Avicenna, war ein persischer Arzt, Naturwissenschaftler, aristotelisch-neuplatonischer Philosoph, Dichter, sunnitisch-hanafitisch ausgebildeter Jurist bzw. Charles Darwin’s (1809-1882) Theory of Evolution gained scientific acceptance in the West with its application to the history of life on Earth. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. These cookies do not store any personal information. The contribution of Ibn Sina (Avicenna) to the Development of Earth Science in Europe. The Canon of Medicine (Arabic: القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb; Persian: قانون در طب) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian Muslim physician-philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Kuwait, 14 p. with abstract in English. Arab Book Publishing House. 16. Avicenna established three origins for the formation of stone: water (chemical), mud that the earth was once covered by the sea, that in many stones when are broken, are found parts of aquatic animals, such as shells, etc.…It is not impossible that the mineralizing virtue was generated there, i.e. Ferroukh, 0., 1970. (detrital) or fire (igneous). Al-Rawi, M. M., 1984. Since, while a deposit is accumulating, only the water from which it precipitated is above it, the. In: Proceedings of the First Symposium for the History of Arabic Science, University of Aleppo, Syria. Arab Science and its importance in the development of world science. 19. Proceedings of the Oxford University Conference on the Influence of the Arab and Islamic Civilisation. University of Michigan, Humanistic Studies, Vol. The first two bind humans to the earth, and the rational psyche connects them to God. Ibn Sina (981 – 1037 CE) was the major influence upon the history of Islamic psychology, taking the ideas of the Greek philosophers and adapting them to fit Islamic doctrine. He began with Aristotle’s idea that humans possessed three types of soul, the vegetative, animal and rational psyches. Directory of Scientific Biography, Vol. It can be rightfully said that Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 981 -1037 C.E.) Paper presented in Arabic to the Second International Symposium for the History of Arabic Science, April 1979, University of Aleppo, Syria, 27 p. with abstract in English. St. Anthony’s College, Oxford, England, December 17-18, 1983. The developments in the search for oil enhanced the development of stratigraphic principles and many other aspects of geologic thinking to the present time. �U�\�*h�s4W�� The Scientific Enterprise. 25. Dar Al-Ilm, Beirut, Lebanon. Translation from the Arabic by Montasir et al (1965), of the chapter on the “origin of Mountains” in Kitab Al-Shifa, which is not included in Adams (1938). (In Arabic). Al-Shahat, A. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. El Maaref Establishment, Alexandria, Egypt, 108 p. with 15 p. (In Arabic with summary in English). In the middle of that century, direct drilling into the subsurface strata was conducted in the USA and oil was discovered in 1857. Avicenna’s views concerning the origin of mountains which, as will be noted, have a remarkably modern tone, may be best presented in a translation of his own words by Holmyard and Mandeville (Avicennae de Congelatione et Conglutinatione Lapidum, being sections of the Kitab al-Shifa. Vol. Translated and edited to Arabic by Zaki, A. Dar Al-Ma‘arif, Cairo, Egypt. He was particularly noted for his contributions in the fields of Aristotelian philosophy and medicine. The contribution of Ibn Sina (Avicenna) to the development of earth sciences in Europe. This is because of the nature of the Earth Science itself, and the history of its development in Europe. IBN SINA CONDUCTED A FAMOUS EXPERIMENT: 1.He put two identical lambs in two separate…” Avicenna, Muslim physician, the most famous and influential of the philosopher-scientists of the medieval Islamic world. science of earth‘s stratigraphy). (Editor), Introduction to Islamic Civilisation, Chapter 10, P.111-119. (In Arabic). His philosophical works were one of the main targets of al-Ghazali’s attack on philosophical influences in … You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. A., 1968. Dar Al-Qalam, Cairo, Egypt. Unfortunately, his geologic ideals were lost for several centuries”. Meteorology. The World of Islam. Muslim Heritage:Send us your e-mail address to be informed about our work. There is no argument in the suggestion that Avicenna‘s work is attributed to the Greeks. We know therefore that in that ground there must be a congealing petrifying virtue, which converts the liquid to the solid…. Er übersetzte die Schriften des Aristoteles, Hippokrates und Galen. The Nineteenth century C.E. Muslim scientists thought about the origin of minerals, rocks, mountains, earthquakes and water, etc. Geology and Mineralogy. I‘ajaz Al-Quran Fi IlmT’abaqat Al-Ardh (The un-challengeable Quran in the The Making of Geology. (In Arabic). Natural Sciences, Part 5 on Minerals and The first (topic) is the condition of the formation of stone, the second is the condition of the formation of stones great in bulk or in number, and the third is the condition of the formation of cliffs and heights”. “We say that, for the most part, pure earth does not petrify, because the predominance of dryness over (i.e. 36, No. One layer was formed first, then at a different period, a further layer was formed and piled, upon the first, and so on. Dar Al-Ma’arif, Cairo, Egypt. In the case of the accidental cause, certain parts of the ground become hollowed out while others do not, by the erosive action of winds and floods which carry away one part of the earth but not another. The first two bind humans to the earth, and the rational psyche connects them to God. experimental data. The concept of hydrologic cycle and underground water in the Arabian science and its impact on agricultural development. Potter, R., 1977. Eicher, D. L., 1976. The Development of Geology as a distinct science in Europe was a product of the development of certain principles and concepts on Earth in approximately three stages. Abu Rayhan (or Abul Rayhan) Muhammad ibn Ahmad. ���\�U`���*0WAs���� Al-Rawi, M. M., 1983b. Furthermore, he recognised the sequence of those events over a long time span, which stretches beyond human lifetime, to form mountains. 33. Hyderabad: It was the Persian scholar of medicine, Ibn Sina (980-1037) who first came up with the idea of quarantine to prevent spread of diseases. Ibn Sina, (980-1037), whose name was Abu al-Hussayn ibn Abdullah ibn Sina, was an outstanding medical writer and physician. History of Science. Catastrophic affecting the earth’s surface. In: Savory, R.M. 22. 28. <> �U�\�*h�s4W�� Features associated with sun reflection on clouds and rainbows; 5. In: Lewis, B., (Editor). 27. The purpose of this rather concise account is to highlight Avicenna’s contribution to the development of Earth sciences, and to explore the following points: 1.To close the gap in the history of Geology, which reflects human thought upon the nature of the Earth. ���\�U`���*0WAs���� Sabra, A.H., 1976. Earth Science in Britain 1660-1815. Presently, these origins are known as sedimentary and igneous.
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