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lemon balm mechanism of action

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However, large variation in receptor binding affinities have been noted between varying strains and preparations of M. officinalis, with the more reliable action of the plant across samples being its calming effects (Kennedy et al., 2003). 3 Endocrinology. At 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 hours following dosing their cognitive performance was assessed using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) test battery together with serial subtraction tasks. It was brought to America from Europe by colonists and started to grow in their gardens. The aromatic oils of lemon balm will soothe the nervous system, thus reducing anxiety. The active principles of plant extracts with antithyrotropic activity: Oxidation products of derivatives of 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid. In relation to the chronic effects of M. officinalis, a study by Akhondzadeh and colleagues (Akhondzadeh et al., 2003a) investigated the efficacy of 60 drops/day tincture vs placebo over a four-month period in 35 patients with mild to moderate AD, aged 65 and 80 years. Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) is a cultivated perennial lemon scented herb. 1985;116(5):1677–86. The seeds are very small about 1–1.5 mm long, ovate, dark brown or black in colour. Hence French researchers decided to determine the herb’s mechanism of action by testing it on different segments of the GI tract of mice. In ancient times, it was also believed to drive away evil from a house when it was grown in front of the door. When thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) binds to the outer membrane of thyroid cells, it triggers a cAMP response on the inside of the cell via adenylate cyclase enzyme activation. Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis) is native to the Mediterranean region. Traditionally, lemon balm was used as a mild sedative and anxiolytic, though several herbal apothecaries of the time created balm with general beneficial effects upon the brain and in particular with specific improvements to memory (Kennedy et al., 2002b). Six hundred mg/day of Valerian for seven days was also capable of decreasing heart rate responses to a laboratory stressor (Cropley et al., 2002). May Aid Diabetes Treatment. Lemon balm is high in flavonoids, which can have an antioxidant effect. Presumably the cholinergic effect associated with the extract was responsible for the improvements to cognition, an effect which only counteracted a sedative effect at the higher dosage levels (> 1000 mg). Morphological features of lemon balm such as plant height, stem and leaf size show a variation depending mainly upon genotype, environment or cultural applications (Sari and Ceylan, 2002). Custom tincture #1, 3 mL twice per day for pelvic issues and chronic pain: Viscum album GM} equal parts to make 480 mL. demonstrated that Melissa leaf had modest but 'appreciable' levels of anti-oxidant activity in comparison to recognised anti-oxidants such as Panax ginseng (Mantle et al., 2000). Lemon balm showed to reduce the cytopathic effect of HSV-2 on Vero cells, in the range of non-toxic concentrations of 0.025-1 mg mL (-1) (with reference to the starting crude herbal material). Lemon balm is also thought to have beneficial effects for individuals with Alzheimer’s disease – a dose of 60 drops per day of standardized extract of lemon balm has been investigated for this purpose (Khare, 2007). 1984;115(2):527–34. Lemon Balm's Anxiolytic Action . One study examined a chemically-validated essential oil derived from Melissa and found that Melissa inhibited binding of GABAA to receptor channel in the rat forebrain, but had no effect on or nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (Abuhamdah et al., 2008). [Another study indicated that] a 600 mg dose of a standardized product containing Melissa officinalis and Valeriana officinalis reduced anxiety in human subjects…, Historically, lemon balm was believed to sharpen memory… a study published in 2003 showed that 1600 mg of dried leaf improved memory and calmness…, [Lemon balm] is one of several plants which may be useful in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease due to its ability to inhibit acetylcholinesterase and its antioxidant activity…. This compound serves as a broad-spectrum antifungal in plant defense and as an insecticidal/antifeedant (Bettarini et al., 1993; Langenheim, 1994). Hence French researchers decided to determine the herb’s mechanism of action by testing it on different segments of the GI tract of mice. 1985;116(5):1687–93. They also determined the chemical composition of lemon balm. Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) belongs to the family Labiatae (Mint family) is an aromatic and fairly hardy perennial sub-shrub. It has been used in Mediterranean region and Europe since the Middle Ages for several purposes such as regulating sleep, appetite and digestion, reducing anxiety and a pain relief. It has also been shown to stop the growth of the food spoilage yeasts, Torulasopra delbrueckii, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Pichia membranifaciens, Dekkera anomala and Yarrowia lipolytica. This low-growing, herbaceous plant has been used traditionally for mood disorders, insomnia, infections, and the symptoms of hyperthyroidism. | Terms & Conditions, Register for Our Herbal Fellowship Program, Mission & Vision for Restorative Medicine. The flowers consist of five fused sepals, five petals, two or four stamens and four lobed ovaries forming 1–4 nutlets. 23.1). Balm oil is considered as a mild spasmolytic agent and is employed as a flavor ingredient in alcoholic beverages. Note that ‘bee balm’ is sometimes used, incorrectly, as a synonym for lemon balm; bee balm is, in fact, another group of plants in the mint family. 1 In addition, lemon balm extract also has the ability to inhibit protein synthesis at the level of elongation factor eEF-2. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. In relation to cognitive effects, two recent studies by Kennedy and colleagues (Kennedy et al., 2002, 2003) have investigated the effects of acute administration. How does it work (mechanism of action)? Various studies have shown lemon balm to be effective at treating stress: Auf’mkolk M, Amir S, Kubota K, Ingbar S. 4 Endocrinology. Cognitive function, as measured by the ADAS-Cog and clinical dementia rating scale, was found to be significantly improved in comparison to placebo at four months. Custom tincture #2, 3 mL twice per day for adreno-gonadotropic imbalances: BID, twice per day; DE, dry extract; EO, essential oil; GM, glycerin macerate; MT, mother tincture. It contains … Inhibition by certain plant extracts of the binding and adenylate cyclase stimulatory effect of bovine thyrotropin in human thyroid membranes. 2016;188:204–28. The pharmacological models used in the studies together with the putative mechanisms of action of the main constituents are also detailed. It can help relieve stress. 7 J Ethnopharmacol. In vitro assay of thyroid disruptors affecting TSH-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. The use of dopamine-promoting herbs, such as Melissa citronelle (lemon balm), Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) and Vitex agnus castus (chaste tree berry) may reduce hyperprolactinemia and androgen excess. I recently stumbled over this article that identifies the mechanism of action of Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm). A clinical study was performed at the University of Northumbria, Newcastle, United Kingdom (2003) in order to assess the cognitive and mood effects of dried lemon balm leaves. showed the antiviral effect of volatile oils of M. officinalis against HSV-1 and HSV-2 viruses. The Herb Society of America guide to Lemon balm (2007) records the following culinary (and household) uses for lemon balm: Lemon balm is a surprisingly versatile culinary herb which can be used to flavor many different types of dishes, from beverages, to appetizers, main courses and desserts. Several studies have reported that anxiolytic effects result from the indirect action on the GABAergic system and mechanisms related to the cholinergic system. 2003;26(10):950–5. It is also approved by Commission E as a treatment for nervousness and insomnia, and it is commonly used in folk medicine to treat anxiety, gastric complaints (especially associated with stress), hysteria, melancholia, nervous palpitations, migraine, headaches, and high blood pressure. These components are absorbed readily following oral ingestion of Melissa. A study… showed that a 600 mg dose of standardized M. officinalis extract improved mood, calmness and alertness, and a 300 mg dose increased the subjects’ mathematical processing speed. officinalis, subsp. Caryophyllene oxide is a sesquiterpenoid oxide common to lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), and to the eucalyptus, Melaleuca stypheloides, whose EO contains 43.8% (Farag et al., 2004). Lemon balm has been used historically as an insect repellent. Antibacterial/antifungal effects: The lemon balm constituent rosmarinic acid was reported to impair in vivo activation of mouse macrophages by heat-killed Corynebacterium parvum, as measured by the decreased capacity of the activated macrophages to undergo the oxidative burst. They grow in loose, small branches from the axils of the leaves on the stems (Fig. The green leaves, which give off a fragrant lemon smell when bruised, are about egg or heart shaped and 2–8 cm in length and arranged in opposing pairs on the stems. Ravindran, ... G.S. Following a similar crossover design to the previous study, 600 mg, 1000 mg and 1600 mg M. officinalis extract vs placebo was then administered to 20 healthy young participants. They reported their findings in an article published in the Journal of Medicinal Food. Their in vivo findings indicate that M. officinalis L. extract inhibit the HSV-2 replication at nontoxic doses [42]. The small flowers (0.5–1.5 cm size) are produced all summer long. P.N. However, large variation in receptor binding affinities have been noted between varying strains and preparations of Melissa officinalis, with the more reliable action of the plant across samples being its calming effects (Kennedy et al., 2003b). Although over 100 chemicals have been identified in M. officinalis, the main components of the essential oil are citral (neral and geranial), citronellal, linalool, geraniol and β-caryophyllene-oxide. Today, lemon balm naturally grows in various parts of the world, including the eastern Mediterranean region, western Asia and northern Africa (Simon et al., 1984). The patient was advised that she could continue the following of her current treatments: The patient was requested to discontinue the following of her current treatments: Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy with emphasis on trauma and gynecologic function, Ethan B. Russo, Jahan Marcu, in Advances in Pharmacology, 2017. Primary interest in lemon balm surrounds its effects on the central nervous system. J Endocrinol Invest. Three subspecies of Melissa officinalis are recognized, but only subsp. Aromatic essential oils including citral, neral, geranial, citronellal, and caryophy… Lemon balm has a documented medicinal history extending back to 50–80 BC (Kennedy et al., 2003). Lemon balm is also used in homeopathic medicine for menstrual irregularities. This is seen as the mechanism of action of diazepam (Valium) and is believed to be one of the possible mechanisms of action of Lemon Balm. It may have antiviral activity against some viruses, for example, the herpes virus as well as calming effects. In vitro analysis of the extract revealed low binding affinity for nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, prompting Kennedy and colleagues to conduct a further study using an extract with greater cholinergic activity. Cases J, Ibarra A, Feuillère N, Roller M, Sukkar SG. Medicinal use throughout this early epoch include a recommendation by Paracelsus (1493–1541) that balm would completely revivify a man and should be used for 'all complaints supposed to proceed from a disordered state of the nervous system'. Lemon balm is a plant used as an herbal supplement. Also known as gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps send messages between the brain and the nervous system. The antiviral mechanism of action of lemon balm is not known. Therapeutic applications of caryophyllene oxide could exploit the antifungal efficacy observed in clinical study of onychomycosis compared to ciclopiroxalamine and sulconazole, with an 8% concentration affecting eradication in 15 days (Yang, Michel, Chaumont, & Millet-Clerc, 1999). Parts of the lemon balm plant (Melissa officinalis L.). However, a review of literature concluded that its psychogenic effects are not proven and the use of the herb as an anxiolytic or a sleep aid falls into the category of ‘unproven uses’ (Medical Economics, 2007, p. 515). Melissa is generally considered to be safe and well tolerated within recommended dosing ranges.7. And has been cultivated for well over 2,000 years. Lemon balm taken internally can aid in reducing anxiety, restlessness, irritability and agitation of all types, and improve the mood, sleep, cognitive function, and mental concentration in therapeutic doses. Medicinal lemon balm preparations include teas/infusions, tinctures, syrups, baths/foot baths, capsules, pills, powders, poultices, salves, steams, fomentations, oil, liquid and dried extracts. Accuracy at attention was found to be significantly improved following the middle dose of 600 mg of M. officinalis, however at the highest dose (900 mg) decrements in memory performance together with reduced alertness were observed. Traditionally, lemon balm was used as a mild sedative and anxiolytic, though several herbal apothecaries of the time created balm with general beneficial effects upon the brain and in particular with specific improvements to memory (Kennedy et al., 2002b). Chopped, fresh leaves can be added to baked goods but whole leaves can be used in many other types of dishes…, One of the most popular ways to use lemon balm is in tea. Another small trial supports a potential cholesterol benefit. The anti-oxidant properties of a whole extract of Melissa are probably mainly attributable to its flavonoid content (Hohmann et al., 1999). Lemon Balm Extract has been long used for its health benefits including lowering triglycerides, mood improvement and cardiac rythm regulation. Upper leaves are usually bigger than lower leaves. In the second study, eight samples of M. officinalis were screened using in vitro analysis, and the extract with the highest binding affinity for both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. Summary: A highly useful, non-sedating spasmolytic with neuro-digestive-uterine tropism. Following its introduction into Spain in the seventh century, its use spread throughout Europe by the middle ages. The London Dispensary (1696) stated, ‘An essence of Balm, given in Canary wine, every morning will renew youth, strengthen the brain, relieve languishing nature and prevent baldness’. Lemon balm's mechanism of action for easing anxiety is not yet fully understood, but it is often used in conjunction with other sedative herbs, namely valerian. Likewise, the lemon balm herb's sedative properties can be used to promote sleep. This agent also demonstrates antiplatelet aggregation properties in vitro (Lin et al., 2003). It active compounds in lemon balm are caffeic acid and tannins. Santini F, Vitti P, Ceccarini G. 2 Endocrinology. 2011;4(3):211–8. Mantle et al. Adil M. Allahverdiyev, ... Olga Nehir Oztel, in Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts, Essential Oils and Their Components, 2013. Additionally, when subjects were subjected to laboratory stressor Melissa increased calmness (Kennedy et al., 2004b) and in combination with Valerian, lemon balm decreased state anxiety (Kennedy et al., 2006) at a lower dose but increased it at a higher level. A. Scholey, ... C. Stough, in Functional Foods (Second Edition), 2011. There is also evidence to suggest that M. officinalis acts as a moderately effective free radical scavenger, which can be attributed to its flavonoid content (Hohmann et al., 1999; Mantle et al., 2000). Ulbricht C, et al. Nicotinic and muscarinic receptor binding in human brain homogenates varied considerably across strains of Melissa (Wake et al., 2000). It is used in cases of anxiety, neurosis and nervous excitability, palpitation and headache, and also in hyperthyroidism. Records concerning its use date back over 2000 years with entries in the Historia Plantarum (approximately 300 bc) and the Materia Medica (approximately 50–80 bc). The putative biologically active compounds in M. officinalis include monoterpenoid aldehydes (including citronellal, neral and geranial), flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds such as rosmarinic acid and monoterpene glycosides (Mulkens et al., 1985; Carnat et al., 1998; Sadraei et al., 2003). Balm (Melissa officinalis L.) is a perennial herb up to 100 cm in height, which is native to South Europe, North Africa, and Anatolia and introduced in almost all temperate regions. Because of particular electromagnetic affinities, rosmarinic acid forms loose bonds with endogenous TSH, thereby reducing its ability to bind and agonize TSH receptors.3 This may reduce thyroxine output in cases of hyperthyroidism. Lemon balm is approved by the German Commission E for nervous sleep disorders and ‘functional gastrointestinal complaints’. Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) is most commonly used for the treatment of insomnia and anxiety disorders.Valerian has a mechanism of action similar to benzodiazepines; however, instead of binding to the gamma subunit like a benzodiazepine, it appears to bind to the beta subunit on the GABA-A receptor instead. Any cognition-modulating effects of Melissa officinalis are likely due to its actions in the cholinergic system (nicotinic and muscarinic receptors). Pilot trial of Melissa officinalis L. leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances. They reported their findings in an article published in the Journal of Medicinal Food. Because gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists may in turn promote dopamine, many botanical GABA agonists may also help regulate prolactin. A number of studies have investigated the anxiolytic effects of M. officinalis, however a discussion of these findings is beyond the scope of the current report. 6 J Herb Pharmacother. Shakeri A, Sahebkar A, Javadi B. AARM | 27 State Street, Suite 5 | Montpelier, VT 05602 | 866-962-2276, Copyright ©2020 Association for the Advancement of Restorative Medicine℠ | All Rights Reserved. Lemon balm’s lemony flavor and aroma are due largely to citral and citronellal, although other phytochemicals, including geraniol (which is rose-scented) and linalool (which is lavender-scented), also contribute to lemon balm’s scent. Melissa contains rosmarinic acid, a phenolic compound derived from caffeic acid and found in several other Melissa family members, all emphasized historically for the symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Extracts and auto-oxidized constituents of certain plants inhibit the receptor-binding and the biological activity of Graves' immunoglobulins. The action of Melissa on GABA-T was confirmed by a further study along with bioassay fractionation which led to the identification and isolation of rosmarinic acid and the triterpenoids, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid as active principles. inodora and subsp. A novel pharmacological mechanism of action for the anxiolytic botanical Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is reported. Among them, Melissa officinalis subsp. They showed that concentrations up to 100 mg/mL are not toxic to cells, although concentrations > 100 mg/mL showed toxic effects on HEp-2 cells. H. Turhan, in Handbook of Herbs and Spices, Volume 3, 2006. Can be used to treat the terrain of certain types of structuro-functional spasmophilics, Actions: CNS: sedative; ANS: para-sympatholytic, sympatholytic, ENDO: gonadotropic: estrogenic, inhibits FSH (relays information of peripheral estrogen sufficiency); GI: eupeptic, spasmolytic; GU: antispasmodic, antiinflammatory to urinary tract. There is evidence to suggest that M. officinalis enhances cholinergic transmission, based on the fact that it binds to both nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors within the central nervous system (Perry et al., 1996; Wake et al., 2000). Melissa officinalis has … Since the maximal nontoxic concentration was determined to be 100 mg/mL, they used this concentration in all experiments to test the effects of volatile oils on virus replication. It was a symbol of sympathy and used to make soothing medicines. S. Kokkini, ... E. Hanlidou, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), 2003. The maximum inhibiting effect (60%) was obtained with 0.5 mg mL (-1). Pillai, in Handbook of Herbs and Spices (Second Edition), Volume 2, 2012. Various other medicinal uses are described in The Herb Society of America guide to Lemon balm (2007): Lemon balm has a long-standing reputation as a calming and uplifting herb… The hydro-alcoholic extract exhibited sedative effects on the central nervous system in animal studies. Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.): an evidence-based systematic review by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. The weight of 1000 seeds is 0.5–0.7 g. A long storage period causes a reduction in germination vigour. This means that it has a mechanism of action that is generally comparable to what MAOIs are doing for monoamines and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are doing for acetylcholine. In the first of these studies 20 healthy young participants received single doses of 200, 600 and 900 mg M. officinalis ethanolic extract vs placebo in a randomised, double-blind, crossover design. Allahverdiyev et al. Leaves can be combined with Earl Grey, green or black tea and a handful can be added to a pitcher of iced tea. Lemon balm cream has shown some efficacy in herpes virus lesions in a few small placebo-controlled trials. Traditional uses of lemon balm have been supported by its pharmacological anxiolytic effects, possibly due to gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) inhibition and/or reduced levels of corticosterone. Researchers have tested both lemon balm essential oil and extract … An extract with negligible cholinergic receptor binding produced behavioural results consistent with its long traditional use as a mild sedative/anxiolytic but did not enhance memory (Kennedy et al., 2003b, 2004b), whereas an extract specifically chosen for its high muscarinic and nicotinic binding properties in human brain tissue had the same mood effects but also improved memory performance (Kennedy et al., 2003b). There is evidence to suggest that Melissa officinalis enhances cholinergic transmission, based on the fact that it binds to both nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors within the central nervous system (Perry et al., 1996; Wake et al., 2000). Melissa contains phenolic acid derivatives such as rosmarinic and the related lithospermic and chlorogenic acids,1 and it is a natural inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzymes.2 Rosmarinic acid and the triterpenoids oleanolic acid and ursolic acid inhibit γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase activity, resulting in increased GABA levels in the brain.3 This mechanism is believed to contribute to anxiolytic and hypotensive effects. Other phytochemicals in lemon balm which may provide antioxidant activity include phenolic acids, terpenes, rosmarinic acid and caffeic acids.

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