Jesse Mez et al., Clinicopathological Evaluation of Chronic Traumatic Encepahalopathy in Players of American Football, JAMA, 318(4): 360-370 (2017). Over the last ten years, more than one billion dollars in legal revenue has been generated from the mining and sale of amber. The paper first summarizes the author's decision-theoretical model of moral behavior, in order to compare the moral implications of the act-utilitarian and of the rule-utilitarian versions of utilitarian theory. This theory of political morality consisted of four components: communal consequentialism, social welfarism, individual welfarism, and compositionalism. Explain. But it can be shown that, by using the principles of rule-utilitarian theory, this paradox can easily be resolved and that, in actual fact, voting, even in large electorates, ... Harsanyi J.C. (1982) Rule Utilitarianism, Rights, Obligations and the Theory of Rational Behavior. We review and discuss axiomatizations of utilitarian and generalized-utilitarian social-evaluation functionals in a welfarist framework. Section 2 introduces, along with some basic definitions, social-evaluation functionals. Utilitarianism is one of the best known and most influential moral theories. Earlyprecursors to the Classical Utilitarians include the British M… They’re all in good shape. An Analysis of Youth Football Head Impact Data, Neurosurgery (Jan. 2020), available at https://doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyz563. African-Americans make up 12.6% of the American population but 68% of NFL rosters. Do you think these critiques are counterbalanced by the fact that the riches that are often lavished upon NFL players go disproportionately to African-Americans as well?  Patrick Findler, Should Kids Play (American) Football?, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(3): 443-462 (2015). There is no official state religion but the Myanmar government favors the majority Theravada Buddhism population. 3. Second, the common interests of the community are included and understood by all as being common interests. Which approach do you think should be used to determine the ethicality of banning, or at least seriously reforming, football to reduce head trauma? Some of these are high impacts comparable to those experienced in high school and college games. , If only one thing is clear about the current science surrounding sports-related concussions (SRCs) and related brain injuries, it is that very little is clear about the current science. Is there a case to be made for “justified harm” in any of these leagues? Utilitarian principles often run contrary to individual’s rights, and at times are the antithesis to concepts of modern justice theories. utilitarian approaches. The field is surprisingly new. 57 Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us?  Janine Armstrong, NFL Concussion Protocol Explained: How Does It Work?, Sportcasting, Oct. 13, 2019, at https://www.sportscasting.com/nfl-concussion-protocol-explained-how-does-it-work/. Pamela R. Sailors, Personal Foul: An Evaluation of the Moral Status of Football, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(2): 269-286 (2015). Utilitarian Theory and Human Rights Utilitarianism can be defined as a moral theory by which the public welfare of a community is dependent on the “sum welfare of individuals, which is measured in units of pleasure and/or pain”, requiring governments to make decisions based on the “largest sum of pleasure” (Postema, 2006). Discussion Questions on High Schools & Colleges, Discussion Questions on Youth Leagues (Under 14).  Matt Ventresca, The Curious Case of CTE: Mediating Materialities of Traumatic Brain Injury, Communication & Sport, 7(2): 135-156 (2019). 89 v. Department of Education, Zenith Radio Corporation v. United States, GET YOUR CUSTOM ESSAY a.  William Stewart et al., Primum Non Nocere: A Call for Balance When Reporting on CTE, Lancet Neurology, 18:231-232 (2019). In the wake of the recent pandemic, Oklahoma State head football coach Mike Gundy said “In my opinion, if we have to bring our players back, test them. As a utilitarian, he was critical of the idea of moral rights, but conceded that the rights could be useful in legal systems. Ronald Dworkin, a prominent rights-theorist, talks about rights as “trump cards” against considerations of utility or the public good (see the Hinman selection on utilitarianism and rights).  Center for Disease Control, at https://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/index.html.  Thomas L. Schwenk, Depression and Pain in Retired Professional Football Players, Medicine & Science in Sports & Leisure, 39(4): 599-605 92007)(but finding that when coupled with difficult with pain, problems with sleep and social relations often followed). Harvard Law Review, 78(2), 473-477. The U.S. Justice Department went to court on Tuesday seeking to force Florida election officials to abandon the state's voter registration purge of non-citizens, saying it was being undertaken too close to the November presidential election.  Kevin Seifer, Did the Helmet Rule Actually Work? The current application of the Stop-And-Frisk statute by the NYPD is a violation of a number of articles defined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).  Justin Ehrlich et al., Mortality Risk Factors Among National Football League Players: An Analysis Using Player Career Data, F1000Research 2019, 8:2022. Etzioni (2010) argues that the right to life should rank highest since all other rights are contingent on it. Wondering what utilitarianism is and how the aforementioned incident is an example of it? Utilitarian? This statistic is up 61% from 2002-2007, perhaps reflecting an improvement of awareness and reporting. Another study of 35 former NFL players over age 50 who had sustained multiple concussions during their careers found no significant association between the length of careers, the number of concussions, and their level of cognitive function later in life.